WORLD HISTORY – UNIT 3: THE MEDIEVAL WORLD HIGH MIDDLE AGES: MONARCHIES AND THE CHURCH In the midst of this setting, medieval countries began to emerge. England and France began to develop strong monarchal systems of government. Spain and Portugal emerged as monarchies near the end of the Middle Ages. Germany and Italy never developed strong monarchies. Here are your goals for this lesson: ·Identify key political leaders, especially of France and England, during the High Middle Ages. ·Identify key personalities of the Christian church during the High Middle Ages. interdict[->0]|In a religious sense, to cut off church functions or privileges. | [->1][->2] [->3][->4] France. As the Carolingian Empire declined and the rulers weakened, a split occurred in the region of France between two factions. One faction supported Charles the Simple; the other supported the Count of Paris. This second faction eventually won out and a new family of Capetian kings ruled the kingdom of France. The Capetian kings ruled France for over three hundred years from 987[->5] to 1328[->6]. Hugh Capet, the Count of Paris, was elected king by the French nobles in 987[->7].
Capet formed alliances with other nobles and began extending his territory through warfare. His strength was in his feudal alliances and in the support given him by the church. He insured Capet succession by crowning his eldest son associate king. The early Capetian kings ruled as lord among other lords rather than a sovereign. The anointing of each king by the church set them apart from the others. The first strong Capetian king was Louis VI (Louis the Fat). Louis VI ruled from 1108[->8]-1137[->9] and established the strong leadership needed to lay the foundation of royal power in France.
He gained complete control over the lle de France, the area around Paris, and established it as the center of royal law. Philip II (Philip Augustus) grandson of Louis VI, ruled from 1180[->10]-1223[->11] and began expanding the kingdom. He captured Normandy, Anjou, and some of the other English territories in France. Philip Augustus also founded the University of Paris, and in 1200[->12] began construction of the Louvre, the palace of the French Kings. The Capetian kings proved themselves stronger than the feudal lords. They encouraged the development of towns so that king and townspeople could be allies against the feudal nobility.
Another Capetian king, Louis IX (St. Louis), ruled from 1226[->13] to 1270[->14] and was considered the ideal king of his age. He is famous for enacting judicial reforms that allowed both rich and poor to receive equal justice. He also led the Seventh and Eighth Crusades. He was considered a saint during his lifetime and was canonized by the Roman Church in 1297[->15], less than thirty years after his death. In 1328[->16], the Capetian dynasty ended because the king left no male heir. The house of Valois claimed the throne because Philip VI , of the house of Valois, was the nephew of Philip the Fair.
However, Edward III of England, also claimed the throne because he was the grandson of Philip the Fair. Edward III paying homage to Philip VI This double claim to the throne led to The Hundred Years’ War, which lasted from 1338[-;17]-1453[-;18]. Many long and bitter battles were fought between England and France, all on French soil. The English dominated the war until 1429[-;19], gaining large territories in France. In 1429[-;20], however, a young girl, Joan of Arc, led an army to break the English siege at Orleans and insured the coronation of Charles VII. Joan was captured by pro-English Frenchmen, led by the Duke of Burgundy.
She was then turned over to the English, who returned her to the French for a trial. She was burned at the stake in 1431[-;21]. During a second trial in 1456[-;22], she was re-tried and declared innocent. The events of 1429[-;23] were the turning point of the Hundred Years’ War for France. From this point France regained territory and won the war in 1453[->24]. France had gained a true national spirit by this time. The monarchy was firmly established. Louis XI, who ruled from 1461[->25] to 1483[->26], finally achieved a united France in 1477[->27] when he defeated Charles the Bald of Burgundy.
England. King Alfred’s successors ruled England until 1016[-;28]. In 1013[-;29] and 1014[-;30] England was overrun by the Danes once more when the king, Ethelred the Unready, fled to Normandy. The English Witan accepted the Dane Canute (Cnut) as king of England in 1016[-;31]. Canute ruled a united Danish kingdom that included Norway, Denmark, and England. During his reign, 1016[-;32]-1035[-;33], England was peaceful. When Canute died, however, his two sons were incompetent and tyrannical. When the last son died in 1042[-;34], the English Witan chose Edward, the son of Ethelred the Unready, as King.
Edward, the Confessor, ruled from 1042[-;35] to 1066[-;36]. The power, however, rested largely with the strongest earl, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and later with his son, Harold Godwinson. When Edward died leaving no heir, Harold became king. Shrine of Edward, the Confessor Harold was not the only claimant to the English throne. Both William, Duke of Normandy, and King Hardrada of Norway planned to invade England. William was a distant relative of Edward, and was officially approved by the pope. William raised an army, invaded England, and defeated Harold at the battle of Hastings in 1066[-;37].
William ruled from 1066[-;38] to 1087[-;39]. He brought the feudal system to England from Normandy, but he modified it so that all vassals were subject directly to him. He granted smaller parcels of land to prevent consolidation of power. William used much of the Anglo-Saxon legal and military systems. Two main factions, the Normans and the Saxons, split England for several years. After William and his successors, England was ruled by a new line of kings, the Plantagenets. Henry II was first in the line of Plantagenet kings. The Plantagenets ruled England from 1154[-;40] to 1399[-;41].
Henry II has been called one of England’s greatest kings because of his extensive judicial reforms. Henry hoped that he could unify England by making the royal law the law of the land. This royal law was the foundation of English common law. English common law became the basis for most of the United States law, and legal procedures. Henry also initiated a circuit court system and developed the jury system that led gradually to the jury trial system. Henry II had difficulty with the church because he attempted to put clergy under common law and because his legal reforms interfered with the church court system.
The culmination of Henry’s problem with the church was his argument with his friend and advisor Thomas a’ Becket over these church-state concerns. The murder of Becket by some of Henry’s knights brought public anger and hurt Henry’s attempt to unify England. Henry’s son, Richard the Lionhearted, spent so many years fighting in the Crusades that he had little affect on England as king. His cruel brother, John, plotted often to overthrow Richard between 1189[-;42] and 1199[-;43], but did not succeed. John finally took the throne when Richard died. His reign from 1199[-;44] to 1216[-;45] is often called the worst in English history.
His cruelty led to defeat on all fronts. His wars with Philip Augustus lost most of the English holdings in France by 1214[-;46]. His disputes with the pope, led the pope to place England under interdict in 1208[-;47] and to excommunicate John in 1209[-;48]. His ruthless ways at home caused the English nobles to revolt in 1215[-;49]. At Runnymede in the year 1215[-;50], John was forced by his nobles to sign the Magna Carta (the Great Charter). The Magna Carta was a document which protected feudal rights and limited the power of the king by stating that even the king was under the rule of law.
Before this time, the king was not bound by any law; he was the law. John did not honor the Magna Carta for long. The principles in the Magna Carta, however, influenced later developments such as fair trials, representative government, and taxation only by consent of the people. John’s refusal to abide by the Magna Carta led to further unrest. When John died in 1216[->51], he left a country torn by civil wars. The Plantagenet kings following John were largely responsible for the formation of English Parliament. Edward I, who reigned from 1272[->52] to 1307[->53], was the first to use Parliament effectively.
He called together an assembly of people’s representatives made up of knights, nobles, clergy, and burgesses. Initially this group was called together to make monetary decisions, especially concerning taxes. In the beginning the representatives met as separate groups, knights meeting with nobles, clergy and burgesses meeting by themselves. In later years the clergy no longer joined the group. The knights and burgesses met together forming the basis for the House of Commons, and the nobles met together in what became known as the House of Lords. Edward I tried to conquer both Wales and Scotland.
He succeeded in conquering Wales in 1284[-;54], but he could not conquer Scotland. The high cost of these wars forced him to collect money through taxes. This need for tax revenue led to the calling of Parliament. Edward II (1307[-;55]-1327[-;56]), Edward III (1327[-;57]-1337[-;58]), and Richard II (1377[-;59]-1399[-;60]), were the last Plantagenet rulers. Edward II and Edward III further developed Parliament making it an integral part of English government by the end of the fourteenth century. The Hundred Years’ War had taken its toll and continued beyond the Plantagenet reign.
Richard II was only ten years of age when he took the throne. His uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, held the real power until Richard was of age. The costs of war, the unrest among the peasants that led to the Peasants Revolt of 1381[->61], and the seizure of John of Gaunt’s lands after his death made Richard unpopular. In 1399[-;62], Richard II was forced to abdicate when John of Gaunt’s son Henry of Bolingbroke led a revolt of nobles against the king. Henry of Bolingbroke became Henry IV, the first king of the House of Lancaster. His son, Henry V, was a strong king who reigned between 1413[->63] and 1422[->64].
Henry V fought bravely in the Hundred Years’ War and won the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415[-;65]. After Henry V’s death, England again was torn by civil wars. When Henry died, his son was only nine months old, and was named Henry Vl. Before Henry VI came of age in 1437[->66], England had suffered severe losses in the Hundred Years’ War, and the country was dominated by rival factions, primarily by the Houses of Lancaster and York. Henry VI’s weak and disastrous reign led England into a second war that began just two years after England’s loss of the Hundred Years’ War.
This new war lasted thirty years (1455[->67]-1485[->68]), and was called the Wars of the Roses because the red rose was the symbol of the House of Lancaster, and the white rose was the symbol of the House of York. The Wars of the Roses finally ended in 1485[->69] when Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster defeated King Richard III in the battle of Bosworth Field. Henry Tudor became Henry VII and began the reign of the Tudor kings, a reign that lasted until 1603[->70]. Holy Roman Empire. In the kingdoms of Germany and Italy, strong monarchies did not develop as they did in England and France.
Germany had the opportunity to establish a strong government but the choice to seek power and conquest prevented them from doing it. After the last Carolingian king of east Frankland died, the kingdom of Germany was split into four duchies. In 919[->71], a Saxon noble, Henry the Fowler became King Henry I. Henry I established a strong government and began to increase the territory of the kingdom of Germany. His son Otto, called Otto the Great, became one of the strongest kings in Europe. During his reign from 936[->72] to 973[->73], Otto created a united Germany by dominating the nobles.
He stopped the Magyar and Slav invasions, and united German church leaders under his power. Once he had united Germany, Otto turned to Italy. On an expedition to Italy (961[->74]-964[->75]), Otto saved the pope, deposed the Italian king, and added north and central Italy to the German kingdom. In 962[->76], the pope crowned him Roman Emperor of the West, and Otto became the first emperor of what was called the Holy Roman Empire. This title gave Otto power not only over Italy and Germany, but also over the papacy.
Otto and the German emperors who followed him became ambitious and desired to live as the Roman emperors had lived before them. While they wasted their efforts trying to hold the Italian states and to live as emperors, the German nobles regained power and established their own feudal states. Some of the strongest German kings could have reunited Germany, but the lure of Italian power kept them divided. One of the most famous kings, Frederick Barbarossa (Redbeard), first of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, extended the empire to Burgundy, Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland.
His reign from 1152[->77] to 1190[->78] was successful, but he spent twenty-five years trying to reconquer Italian lands. Frederick died in Asia Minor on the Third Crusade. Spain and Portugal. After 711[->79] when the Muslims invaded Spain, civil wars split the Muslim factions. The Umayyad Kingdom of Cordoba became the center of culture and power in Spain from the eighth to the eleventh century. Tenth century Cordoba was the great intellectual center of Europe. Small groups of Christians had scattered during the Muslim invasions.
After 711[->80] Christians fought both Muslims and other Christians and established small kingdoms. By the tenth and eleventh centuries independent Christian kingdoms were well established. Muslim power had begun to disintegrate. The Christian reconquest, or Reconquista, as it was called, began in the eleventh century and continued for nearly four hundred years. Rodrigo Diaz of Vivar, known as El Cid, was the great hero of the early Reconquista movement. He conquered the Muslims in Valencia in 1094[->81] and became its ruler until his death in 1099[->82].
In 1139[->83] Alphonso I of Portugal defeated the Muslims. Portugal was declared a free kingdom in 1143[->84]. In 1212[->85] the Spanish Christians defeated the Muslims in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. All that remained under Muslim control was Granada. The Reconquista finally ended in 1492[->86] when Ferdinand and Isabella captured Granada. THE CHURCH The Roman Catholic Church of the High Middle Ages was one of the only unifying factors in Europe. Europe was often called Christendom because the church was so much a part of life.
The church controlled many legal and political functions and during this period promised protection as well as salvation. People depended on the church first of all for salvation. Roman Catholics believed in certain basic doctrines, the most important of which were the seven sacraments: baptism confirmation penance the Holy Eucharist (Lord’s Supper) matrimony (marriage) holy orders extreme unction The sacraments covered every aspect of Roman Catholic life from birth with baptism to preparation for death with extreme unction. The sacraments were considered essential to salvation and could only be administered by clergy.
The church structure was similar to earlier church structures. In the High Middle Ages, however, bishops were often upper class, equal to the nobles in wealth and power. Parish priests, especially in the villages, were often poorly educated, but were concerned with the salvation of their people. The church began to develop a more highly structured ritual, or liturgy. The liturgy was not the same all over Europe, but the essential Eucharistic ritual was central to it. Church fathers and later poets composed elaborate hymns for church services. Observance of religious festivals and special seasons increased.
The church regulated certain aspects of warfare. Knights who killed innocent people or who pillaged churches or monasteries were banned from the sacraments in accordance with a document known as the Peace of God (990[-;87]). Another document, the Truce of God, prohibited fighting during certain religious seasons and on specified days of the week. The church courts tried those who ignored these rules as well as members of the clergy who were guilty of offenses. Heretics were also tried by church courts. A fear of heresy led to the creation of a court to search out and to try heretics.
This court became known as the Inquisition. The church could impose severe penalties, such as interdiction and excommunication. The Church could also depose unfit rulers. Religious orders. The medieval church was not without controversies. The increased wealth of some church leaders and of some monasteries led to reforms from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. The primary reforms were monastic. Many monasteries had become part of the feudal system, accepting lands in return for protection. The land brought further involvement with the world, along with wealth.
Many monks, vowed to poverty, found this acquisition of land unacceptable and set out to find new, reformed orders with stricter rules. The monastery of Cluny, founded in 910[-;88], was such a reformed monastery. The monks of Cluny refused land grants that tied them to lay leaders. The movement spread, and Cluny eventually had 300 monasteries under the abbot at Cluny. These monks were responsible directly to the pope. Two other reform groups were the Carthusians, who lived as hermits, and the Cistercians, who were a stricter branch of the Benedictines and who were led in the early twelfth century by St.
Bernard of Clairvaux (1091[-;89]-1153[-;90]). In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries new orders, known as mendicant orders, began to appear. The members of these monastic orders took vows of poverty and were forbidden to own property. They were supported by alms (begging). Two of these orders were begun by Francis of Assisi (1182[-;91]-1216[-;92]) and Dominic (1170[-;93]-1221[-;94]). These two men organized groups of friars, or brothers, who did not live in monasteries, but went out as missionaries, earning or begging for their food and shelter as they went.
These orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, were founded to fight the spread of heresies. In addition to a vow of poverty, the friars’ rule forbade them to marry. Papacy. As papal powers and secular powers became more closely linked, problems arose between church and state in all matters. Both church and state claimed sovereign powers in cases that did not concern them, especially in legal matters. The outcome was usually determined by the stronger leader, either pope or king. From 962[->95] to 1149[->96], Otto the Great and the other emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, had declared themselves above the pope.
They deposed and named popes at will. The Clunaic Reforms under Pope Leo IX (1049[->97]-1054[->98]) gave the papacy independence. Gregory III, who was pope from 1037[->99] to 1085[->100], tried to establish church authority over state authority by standing against the German emperors. Although he was driven from Rome, he established a precedent of opposition to the Germans which spurred future popes to similar action. Pope Innocent III had greater success over secular rulers during his papacy from 1198[->101]-1216[->102].
He was victorious over both Philip Augustus of France in 1198[->103], and King John of England in 1213[->104]. In the latter case, he forced John to pay tribute to the papacy and to acknowledge that England was a fief of the papacy. In the thirteenth century, Pope Gregory IX was unable to defeat Frederick II of Germany, but he created considerable opposition that led eventually to the downfall of the Hohenstaufens. In 1302[->105] Pope Boniface VIII (1294[->106]-1303[->107]) declared that all states were subject to the pope.
This action resulted in controversy, especially with Philip the Fair in France, and led to the Avignon Captivity, a group of French popes who reigned in the city of Avignon from 1305[->108] to 1376[->109]. From 1378[->110] to 1417[->111], the Great Schism, an era when the church was ruled by two rival popes, dealt a severe blow to papal supremacy and severely split the church. The schism ended in 1417[->112] when the Council of Constance deposed both popes and elected a new pope, Martin V. Philosophy. One of the major intellectual developments to rise out of the church at this time was a serious study of philosophy.
Medieval philosophy began to examine the relationship between faith and reason. The introduction of many of Aristotle’s works into medieval Europe combined with knowledge of church teachings led to the development of a religious philosophy known as Scholasticism. Scholasticism attempted to apply Aristotle’s logic to church teachings. The greatest scholastic philosopher was St. Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican who lived from about 1224[->113] to 1274[->114]. His twenty-one volume Summa Theologica carefully studies the relationship between faith and reason. Thomas spoke of reason and faith as gifts of God.
He concluded that reason could understand certain truths and that faith perceived the truths of Christians, which could not be understood by reason. Scholasticism was not immediately accepted, but eventually Thomas’ works were adopted officially by the church. The Crusades. In the period from 1096[-;115] to 1291[-;116], eight Catholic Crusades were launched to drive the Muslim “infidels” from the Holy Land. The Crusades were military failures. They did, however, stimulate the growth of trade in Europe, which, in turn, led to the growth of cities, trade centers, and monetary systems.
They also led to advances in armor and weaponry. The Crusades were very costly and many nobles were forced to sell their lands to finance military campaigns. This led eventually to a decline in the feudal system because the sale of the lands lessened the power of the lords, and it released the serfs who then moved into the towns. Major Crusades:| The First Crusade (1096[-;117]-1099[-;118]) called by Pope Urban II at request of the Byzantine emperor;| The Second Crusade (1147[-;119]-1149[-;120]) called by St.
Bernard of Clairvaux at the request of Pope Eugenius II;| The Third Crusade (1189[-;121]-1192[-;122]) called by European leaders after the fall of Jerusalem;| The Fourth Crusade (1202[-;123]-1204[-;124]) called by Pope Innocent III;| The Fifth Crusade (1218[-;125]-1221[-;126]) called by Pope Innocent III;| The Sixth Crusade (1228[-;127]-1229[-;128]) led by Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire;| The Seventh Crusade (1248[-;129]-1254[-;130]) called by Louis IX of France;| The Eighth Crusade (1270[-;131]-1272[-;132]) called by Louis IX of France. |
The Crusades diminished the power of the church somewhat because they failed to defeat the “infidels. ” The Crusades were responsible, however, for the growth of chivalric and monastic orders of knights, such as the Knights Templars, the Teutonic Knights, and the Knights Hospitalers. Three other Crusades are often mentioned. The first is the People’s Crusade of 1096[->133] composed of about fifty thousand peasants and their families who set out for Asia Minor. They pillaged their way through Europe and killed many Jews. Led by a man called Peter the Hermit, about twelve thousand reached their goal, only to be slaughtered by Turks.
The second was the Children’s Crusade of 1212[-;134]. This Crusade led to disaster and was a tragic memory for families across the continent. Most of the idealistic children either died or were captured and sold as slaves. The third crusade was officially called by Pope Gregory in 1274[-;135] and would have been the Ninth Crusade, but it never began. Pope Gregory died in 1276[-;136] and preparation for the Crusade ceased. [-;0] – playwav:interdic. mp3 [-;1] – gameboard:group=1 [-;2] – gameboard:group=1 [-;3] – flashcards:group=1 [-;4] – flashcards:group=1 -;5] – timeline:year=987 [-;6] – timeline:year=1328 [-;7] – timeline:year=987 [-;8] – timeline:year=1108 [-;9] – timeline:year=1137 [-;10] – timeline:year=1180 [-;11] – timeline:year=1223 [-;12] – timeline:year=1200 [-;13] – timeline:year=1226 [-;14] – timeline:year=1270 [-;15] – timeline:year=1297 [-;16] – timeline:year=1328 [-;17] – timeline:year=1338 [-;18] – timeline:year=1453 [-;19] – timeline:year=1429 [-;20] – timeline:year=1429 [-;21] – timeline:year=1431 [-;22] – timeline:year=1456 [-;23] – timeline:year=1429 -;24] – timeline:year=1453 [-;25] – timeline:year=1461 [-;26] – timeline:year=1483 [-;27] – timeline:year=1477 [-;28] – timeline:year=1016 [-;29] – timeline:year=1013 [-;30] – timeline:year=1014 [-;31] – timeline:year=1016 [-;32] – timeline:year=1016 [-;33] – timeline:year=1035 [-;34] – timeline:year=1042 [-;35] – timeline:year=1042 [-;36] – timeline:year=1066 [-;37] – timeline:year=1066 [-;38] – timeline:year=1066 [-;39] – timeline:year=1087 [-;40] – timeline:year=1154 [-;41] – timeline:year=1399 [-;42] – timeline:year=1189 -;43] – timeline:year=1199 [-;44] – timeline:year=1199 [-;45] – timeline:year=1216 [-;46] – timeline:year=1214 [-;47] – timeline:year=1208 [-;48] – timeline:year=1209 [-;49] – timeline:year=1215 [-;50] – timeline:year=1215 [-;51] – timeline:year=1216 [-;52] – timeline:year=1272 [-;53] – timeline:year=1307 [-;54] – timeline:year=1284 [-;55] – timeline:year=1307 [-;56] – timeline:year=1327 [-;57] – timeline:year=1327 [-;58] – timeline:year=1337 [-;59] – timeline:year=1377 [-;60] – timeline:year=1399 [-;61] – timeline:year=1381 -;62] – timeline:year=1399 [-;63] – timeline:year=1413 [-;64] – timeline:year=1422 [-;65] – timeline:year=1415 [-;66] – timeline:year=1437 [-;67] – timeline:year=1455 [-;68] – timeline:year=1485 [-;69] – timeline:year=1485 [-;70] – timeline:year=1603 [-;71] – timeline:year=919 [-;72] – timeline:year=936 [-;73] – timeline:year=973 [-;74] – timeline:year=961 [-;75] – timeline:year=964 [-;76] – timeline:year=962 [-;77] – timeline:year=1152 [-;78] – timeline:year=1190 [-;79] – timeline:year=711 [-;80] – timeline:year=711 -;81] – timeline:year=1094 [-;82] – timeline:year=1099 [-;83] – timeline:year=1139 [-;84] – timeline:year=1143 [-;85] – timeline:year=1212 [-;86] – timeline:year=1492 [-;87] – timeline:year=990 [-;88] – timeline:year=910 [-;89] – timeline:year=1091 [-;90] – timeline:year=1153 [-;91] – timeline:year=1182 [-;92] – timeline:year=1216 [-;93] – timeline:year=1170 [-;94] – timeline:year=1221 [-;95] – timeline:year=962 [-;96] – timeline:year=1149 [-;97] – timeline:year=1049 [-;98] – timeline:year=1054 [-;99] – timeline:year=1037 -;100] – timeline:year=1085 [-;101] – timeline:year=1198 [-;102] – timeline:year=1216 [-;103] – timeline:year=1198 [-;104] – timeline:year=1213 [-;105] – timeline:year=1302 [-;106] – timeline:year=1294 [-;107] – timeline:year=1303 [-;108] – timeline:year=1305 [-;109] – timeline:year=1376 [-;110] – timeline:year=1378 [-;111] – timeline:year=1417 [-;112] – timeline:year=1417 [-;113] – timeline:year=1224 [-;114] – timeline:year=1274 [-;115] – timeline:year=1096 [-;116] – timeline:year=1291 [-;117] – timeline:year=1096 [-;118] – timeline:year=1099 -;119] – timeline:year=1147 [-;120] – timeline:year=1149 [-;121] – timeline:year=1189 [-;122] – timeline:year=1192 [-;123] – timeline:year=1202 [-;124] – timeline:year=1204 [-;125] – timeline:year=1218 [-;126] – timeline:year=1221 [-;127] – timeline:year=1228 [-;128] – timeline:year=1229 [-;129] – timeline:year=1248 [-;130] – timeline:year=1254 [-;131] – timeline:year=1270 [-;132] – timeline:year=1272 [-;133] – timeline:year=1096 [-;134] – timeline:year=1212 [-;135] – timeline:year=1274 [-;136] – timeline:year=1276
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more
Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. Get professional help and free up your time for more important courses. Let us handle your;