Two Types of Computer Software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE Computer software or just call as software is about any set of machine –readable instruction that directs a computer precessorto perform spesific operations. One common way of dicribing hardware and software is to say that software can be thought of as the varible part of a computer and hardware as the invariable part. Hardware and software require each other neither has any value without the other. Software is a genaral term. It can refer to all computer instuction in general or to any specific set of computer instuctions.
It is conclusive of both machine instruction that call the binary code that more human understand and source code that more human undestandable instructions that must be rendered into machine code by compiless or interoreters before being executed. On most computer plattforms software can be grouped into two broad categories. It is system software is the basic software needed for a computer to operate. The application software is all the software that uses the computer system to perform useful work beyond the operation of the computer itself.
Software refer to one or more computer and data held in storage of the computer. In the other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithm and its documentation concerned with the operation of the fuction of program it implemens either by directly providing instruction to the digitals electronics or by serving as input to the another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the term hadware. In the contrast hardware , software ‘ cannot be touched. Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense meaning application software only.
Sometimes the terms includes data that has not traditionally being associated with computers, such as film, types and record . These are system software or operating system referred simply as the OS, application software and programming languages. Usually most of us interact with a computer using application software. * TYPES OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application system includes a variety of programs that can be subidivided into ganeral-purpose and function-specific application categories. A normal user rarely gets to see the operating system or to work with it.
But all of us are familiar with application software which we must use to interact with a computer. Application softwares are used to improve our work ability. Different application softwares and system softwares are used in daily life. Some are productivity software, content software, assessment software, online software, drill and practice software, problem solving software, tutorials, multimedia softwares, stimulation, games, group ware, share ware, spy ware, free ware etc . Some softwares are used to produce and create documents and different presentations. In the application software have four type. It is general purpose, custom software, commercial off-the –shelf(COST) and open source-software. Genaral-purpose application programs are programs that perform common information processing jobs for end user. For example word processing, spreadsheet, database management, and graphics prgrams are popular with microcomputer user for home,education,business, scientific and many other purpose. Because they significantly increase the productivity of end user , they are sometimes known a productivity packages.
Other examples include web browsers, e-mail, and group ware, which help support communication among workgroups and teams. Costum software is an additional common way of classifying software is based on how the software was the developed. It is the term used to identity software application that are developed within an organization for used to identify software applicationthat are developed within an organization for use by that organization. In other words, the organization that writes the program code is also the organization that use the final software organization.
Software that is developed for a specific user or organization is custom software. Since it is built for a specific user, its specifications and features are in accordance with the user’s needs. Commercial off-the –shelf(COST). It is developed with the intention of selling the softwarein multiple copies and usually for a profit. In this case, the organization that writes the software is not the intended target audience for its use. Several characteristics are important when describing COST software.
As opposed to custom software, off-the-shelf software is standard software bought off the shelf. It has predefined specifications that may or may not cater to any specific user’s requirements. When you buy it, you agree to its license agreement. First as stated in our definition, COST software products are sold in many copies with minimal changes beyond scheduled upgrade release. Purchaser of COST software generally not control over the specification,schedule, evolution, or access to either the source code or internal documentation.
A COST product is sold, leased, or licennsed to the genaral public, but in virtually all cases, the vendor of the product retains the intellectual prperty rights of the software. Costum software, in contrast,is gerally owned by the organization that developed it, and the specifications, functionality, and awnershipof the final product are controlled or retained by the developing organization. Open- source software is the newest innovation in software development. In this approach, developers collaborate on the development of an application usingprogramming standards that allow for everyone to contribute to the software.
Futhermore , as each developer completes his or her project, the code for the application becomes the available and free to anyone else who wishes to use it. Open source software is available in its source code form and the rights to change, improve and sometimes distribute its code are given under a software license. Software developed by an individual or an organization, where the source code is closed from public (not available openly) is referred to as closed source software. SYSTEM SOFTWARE System software consist of program that manage and support a computer system and its information processing activities.
For example. Operating systemand network management programs serve as a vital software interface between computer networks and hardware and the application programs of the ends users. System software is the backbone of any computer. It consists of all the files and programs that work to make your computer operate as a computer. System software is automatically provided when you purchase a computer on the high street, and is installed along with the operating system. Providers of system software include Windows and Apple Mac.
These offer regular updates which can be installed for free as they become available. Examples of system software include assemblers, system utilities, tools and debuggers. We can group system software into two major categories. System management programs. Program that manage the hardware, software network,and data resources of computer system during the execution of the various information processing jobs of users, example of important system management programs are operating systems,network managemant programs, database management systems and system utilities.
System development programs. It is program that help user develop information system program and procedur and prepare user programs for computer processing. Major software development programs are programming langguage translators and aditors ,and variety of CASE and other programming tools. PICTURE OF TYPE OF SOFWARE REFFERENCE O’Brien, J. A. ,Marakas, G. A(2011). Management information system. American : new york: McGraw Hill. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia