Chronic kidney disease can be a stressful factor for a person when it is detected or occurs unexpectedly. It can turn into a long-term situation of frustration because the person finds physical and mental constraints to meet his or her needs. It is a critical situation in the human’s life because it can change the system of personal values and the meaning of his or her life. As a consequence of chronic disease, the perception of one’s health status as well as life processes can drastically change, and programs such as the Healthy People 2020 and the different nursing interventions can help a person to lead a life close to normal.
Healthy People 2020 provides incentives for CKD risk prevention (enhanced physical activity, weight control, calorie decreasing). It covers many objectives (CKD-4 Medical evaluation of persons with chronic kidney disease; CKD-5 Medical treatment of persons with diabetes and chronic kidney disease; CKD-6 Cardiovascular care in persons with chronic kidney disease, and others) that should be consulted (Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative, 2014).
In the cases of CKD, the nurses should furnish the improved care provision and management and implement the life-cycle approaches. They should take the leading part in educating the population in healthy eating, the necessity of consuming enough vegetables, and, in general, raise their health literacy and awareness (Healthy people 2020 Progress Review, 2014).
The peculiarities of an individual’s attitude to the disease are integrity, activity, consciousness, selectivity, and its components are cognitive, emotional, and motivational behaviors. A crucial factor in the maintenance, preservation, and restoration of health in the situation of the disease is the active position of the person and the coping strategy utilized to manage the disease (Daugirdas, 2012). The role of the nursing profession in this situation is important because a nurse should help persons to accept the changes in their lives and health correctly and to set the appropriate direction of their life.
In the case of Mr. X. S, the course of treatment is synthesized with measures to maintain bone health. The man showed an adaptive behavioral strategy; however, he has varied support needs that require effective addressing. Firstly, the nurse must address the motivational component related to the disease due to the fact that it has occurred with severe complications, which have affected both the physical and psychological condition of Mr. X. S (Swearingen, 2015). Secondly, the nurse needs to pay attention to the emotional component of attitude to the disease because of Mr. X. S showed varying coping strategies. Third, the behavioral component of the man’s attitudes to the disease is one of the important support needs; it is crucial to maintain a proactive stance in the patient.
There are the following features of the patient’s relation to the disease, such as the prevalence of a harmonious and geopathic type that is characteristic of intact social adaptation (Swearingen, 2015). Further, the restriction and control to meet the needs in the areas of life, such as family, work, leisure, communication, subjective well-being, are present. The task of the nursing profession is to support the patient’s needs and to conduct ongoing monitoring of the changes (Arici, 2014). Moreover, the nurse should interact with the patient’s family members constantly to enhance their caregiver supporting skills and, similarly, address their support needs as well, while such diseases as CKD affect the whole family.
The main nursing priorities when considering appropriate interventions should be to sustain homeostasis, avert sequela, boost health literacy, self-esteem and health awareness of the patient, and support adaptation to the changing lifestyle (Arici, 2014). The nurse should pay particular attention to complaints about weakness or growing fatigue. It is essential to outline activities for the patient that would evade fatigue. When managing any patient activity, the nurse should note the patient’s responsivity to support activities and change the course of care if the tendency is not positive (Swearingen, 2015).
As the patient has severe health complications caused by the negligence, it is crucial to support his mental needs and respond to his questions and concerns in a concise but simple way while the patient may develop minor confusion and inability to assimilate information. It can be caused by uremic syndrome; consequently, the nurse should be aware of any attention spans. In general, Mr. X. S should be knowledgeable about the changes in his health, while reticence will potentiate defensive reactions and irritability that will result in negative nursing and patient outcomes.
Social Determinants and Environment
The life of people with CKD is dependent on the place of residence of the individual and his or her integration in society. The formation, clinical course, and treatment strategy of socially important chronic diseases are significantly correlated in patients living in areas with a safe social environment as well as in socially risky areas. In addition, patients living in urban communities and who are subjected to stress, require a more rapid and intensive treatment strategy, rather than rural residents with stable social ties in the community and leading a regular life unexposed to a strong emotional impact (Greenberg, Daniels, Flanders, Eley, & Boring, 2015).
Tests and questionnaires on the quality of life of Mr. X. S, as well as sociological profiling, will enable us to find out the correlation between his condition and the social environment he lives in.
In conclusion, the treatment of CKD patients is a great challenge, and it requires special approaches. The basis of the plan of care is the bio-psychological approach to the needs of the patient with CKD. This approach does not replace the traditional methods of treatment, but it enables answering to the support needs of the individual and adapt the plan of care effectively.
Arici, M. (2014). Management of chronic kidney disease. New York, NY: Springer.
Chronic kidney disease initiative. (2014). Web.
Daugirdas, J. (2012). Handbook of chronic kidney disease management. New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Greenberg, R., Daniels, S., Flanders, W., Eley, J., & Boring, J. (2015). Medical epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: McGraw Hill Professional.
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Swearingen, P. (2015). All-in-one care planning resource. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.