Treating Aggression in Children and Teenagers

Table of Contents

Introduction

To treat aggression in children and teenagers, it is possible to apply different types of antipsychotics. In order to address the condition in a 15-year-old healthy male individual, such medication as risperidone can be used (Mauri et al., 2014). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the appropriate dosage, administration, and side effects and focus on the concept of the off-label use of medications.

Administration and Mechanisms of Action

The recommended initial dose is 0.5 mg orally per day. The titration dose is 1 mg per day taken in 24 hours. The maintenance dose for the client is 2 mg per day. Risperidone should be administered with or without food once a day. Possible side effects include agitation, dizziness, constipation, nausea, and dystonia. The mechanism of action depends on the affinity for dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5HT2 and 5HT7 receptors (Mauri et al., 2014). There is also the affinity for α1 and α2 and histamine receptors. Risperidone is absorbed rapidly, it is metabolized through 9-hydroxylation in the liver, peak plasma concentrations are observed in an hour, and linear pharmacokinetics is typical. Concerning excretion, risperidone is mainly eliminated via the urine, and the half-life of it is 3 hours.

Side Effects

Potential side effects are anxiety, agitation, drowsiness, akathisia, possible changes in vision, and abdominal pain. The patient should be educated to report any of these conditions to a medical worker. Other adverse reactions are nausea, diarrhea, dystonia, tachycardia, concentration difficulties, sleepiness, and problems with urination (Mauri et al., 2014). To monitor these effects, patients should be informed about the probability of these conditions and contacting the physician when they are observed.

Definition of Off-Label Use of Medications

The off-label use of such a psychotropic medication as risperidone means the prescription of this drug for treating conditions that are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The use of risperidone for managing aggressive behaviors is off-label because the medication is approved only for treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism (Carton et al., 2015). Thus, a physician takes full responsibility for prescribing a medication for a non-approved indication referring to available evidence.

Explanation to Parents

To explain the off-label use of risperidone to parents, it is necessary to refer to available evidence from trials on applying this drug for treating aggressive behaviors. A narrow range of medications is approved by the FDA for treating aggression in children and adolescents (Carton et al., 2015). The decision is made depending on evidence regarding the use of psychotropic drugs for managing this condition.

Sound Clinical Decisions and Conclusion

The off-label prescription of medications can be a sound clinical decision when there is clear evidence regarding their positive impact on treated conditions. This practice is typical of psychiatry, especially with reference to treating children and adolescents (Nielsen et al., 2016). Psychiatric classifications can unite spectrums of conditions of a similar clinical nature, and the off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics is possible. There can be no other alternatives available to address certain conditions.

References

Carton, L., Cottencin, O., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Geoffroy, P., Favre, J., Simon, N.,… Rolland, B. (2015). Off-label prescribing of antipsychotics in adults, children and elderly individuals: A systematic review of recent prescription trends. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 21(23), 3280-3297.

Mauri, M. C., Paletta, S., Maffini, M., Colasanti, A., Dragogna, F., Di Pace, C., & Altamura, A. C. (2014). Clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotics: An update. EXCLI Journal, 13, 1163-1191.

Nielsen, E. S., Hellfritzsch, M., Sørensen, M. J., Rasmussen, H., Thomsen, P. H., & Laursen, T. (2016). Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs in a Danish child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(1), 25-31.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with My Homework Geeks
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

escort

-
eskişehir escort

escort

-
eskişehir escort
Live ChatWhatsApp

escort

-
eskişehir escort