He saw America as a country stripped of its morality and divorced from its religious foundation. To Weber, it was rather supporting evidence for his most famous essays, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. These essays, published in 1904 and 1905, discussed his idea that the rise of modern capitalism was attributable to Protestantism, particularly Calvinist. After a stint volunteering in the medical service during World War l, Weber published three more books on religion in a sociological context.
These works, The Religion of China (1916), The Religion of India (1916) and Ancient Judaism (1917-1918), contrasted their respective religions and cultures with that of the Western world by sighing the importance of economic and religious factors, among others, on historical outcomes. Weber resumed teaching in 1918. He intended to publish additional volumes on Christianity and Islam, but he contracted the Spanish flu and died in Munich on June 14, 1920. His manuscript of Economy and Society was left unfinished; it was edited by his wife and published in 1922.
Views and Contribution Max Weber, German sociologist. Weber first describes the concept of bureaucracy which is an ideal form of organizational structure. He defines bureaucratic administration as the exercise of intro on the basis of knowledge. Weber states, “Power is principally exemplified within organizations by the process of control”. Weber uses and defines the terms authority and power as: Power: any relationship within which one person could impose his will, regardless of any resistance from the other.
Authority: existed when there was a belief in the legitimacy of that power. Weber classifies organizations according to the legitimacy of their power and uses three basic classifications: individual. Traditional Authority: essentially a respect for customs. Rational Legal Authority: based on a code or set of rules. Weber recognizes that rational legal authority is used in the most efficient form of organization because: A legal code can be established which can claim obedience from members of the organization.
The law is a system of abstract rules which are applied to particular cases and administration looks after the interests of the organization within the limits of that law. The manager or the authority additionally follows the impersonal order. Membership is key to law obedience. Obedience is derived not from the person administering the law, but rather to the impersonal order that installed the person’s authority. Weber outlined his ideal bureaucracy as defined by the following parameters: A continuous system of authorized Jobs maintained by regulations.
Specialization: encompasses a defined “sphere of competence,” based on its divisions of labor A stated chain of command of offices: a consistent organization of supervision based on distinctive levels of authority Rules: an all encompassing system of directives which govern behavior: rules may require training to comprehend and manage Impersonality: no partiality, either for or against, clients, workers, or administrators Free selection of appointed officials: equal opportunity based on education and repressions qualification Full-time paid officials: only or major employment; paid on the basis of position Career officials: promotion based on seniority and merit; designated by supervisors Private/Public split: separates business and private life The finances and interests of the two should be kept firmly apart: the resources of the organization are quite distinct from those of the members as private individuals. FREDERICK W.
TAYLOR OCCUPATION: Inventor BIRTH DATE: March 20, 1856 DEATH DATE: March 21, 1915 PLACE OF BIRTH: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania PLACE OF DEATH: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania FULL NAME: Frederick Winslow Taylor HISTORY Frederick Winslow Taylor was born on March 20, 1856, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While employed at Medieval Steel Co. , Taylor systematized the shop management to reduce costs and increase production. Taylor became known as the father of production management. His theory was called Tailors. Taylor died on March 21, 1915. Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 191 5) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency.
He is regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants. Taylor was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era. U. S. Inventor Frederick Winslow Taylor analyzed shop production. His time- and-motion system led to modern mass production techniques. Taylor identifies two people as having influenced him: Lucian Sharpe impresses Taylor with his focus, concentration, and task commitment. John Griffith teaches Taylor how to be an appreciative, respectful, and admirable working mechanic. Medieval Steel Company Taylor begins working for the Medieval steel Company in 1878.
While there he he begins studying productivity as a means of measuring of manufacturing. Later he becomes the chief engineer at Medieval. Ingenuity and Accomplishments Creates systems to gain maximum efficiency from workers and machines in the factory. Focuses on time and motion studies to learn how to complete a task in the least amount of time. Becomes consulting engineer for many other companies Publishes-?The Principles of Scientific Management Key Points of Scientific Management Scientific Job Analysis – observation, data gathering, and careful measurement determine “the one best way’ to perform each Job. Selection of Personnel – scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop workers .
Management Cooperation – managers should cooperate with workers to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that developed the plan. Functional Supervising – managers assume planning, organizing, and decision- making activities, and workers perform Jobs. HENRY PAYOLA Henry Payola (Istanbul, 29 July 1841 – Paris, 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration. He and his colleagues developed this theory independently of scientific management but roughly contemporaneously. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
Info :- Engineer and French industrialist In France works as a managing director in coal-mining organization Recognizes to the management principles rather than personal traits While others shared this belief, Payola was the first to identify management as a continuous process of evaluation. Payola’s 5 Management Functions -Fundamental roles performed by all managers: Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Controlling of organizations. Payola’s 14 Principles: . Division of Work -?improves efficiency through a reduction of waste, increased output, and simplification of Job training 2. Authority and Responsibility-?authority: the right to give orders and the power to extract obedience – responsibility: the obligation to carry out assigned duties 3. Discipline-?respect for the rules that govern the organization 4.
Unity of Command-?an employee should receive orders from one superior only 5. Unity of Direction-?grouping of similar activities that are directed to a single goal under one manager 6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest-?interests of individuals and groups should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. 7. Remuneration of Personnel-? payment should be fair and satisfactory for employees and the organization 8. Centralization-?managers retain final responsibility – subordinates maintain enough responsibility to accomplish their tasks 9. Scalar Chain (Line of Authority)-?the chain of command from the ultimate authority to the lowest 10.
Order-?people and supplies should be in the right place at the right time 1 1 . Equity-?managers should treat employees fairly and equally 12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel-?managerial practices that encourage long-term commitment from employees create a stable workforce and therefore a successful organization 13. Initiative-?employees should be encouraged to develop and carry out improvement plans 14. Esprit De Corps-? managers should foster and maintain teamwork, team spirit, and a sense of unity among employees ABRAHAM MOSCOW Birth and Death: Abraham Moscow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He died in California on June 8, 1970 due too heart attack.
Abraham Moscow grew up in Brooklyn, New York, the first of seven children born o his Jewish parents who emigrated from Russia. Moscow later described his early childhood as unhappy and lonely, and he spent much of his time in the library immersed in books. Eventually, Moscow went on to study law at City College of New York (CCNY) and married his first-cousin Bertha Goodman. He later switched to the University of Wisconsin where he developed an interested in psychology and found a mentor in psychologist Harry Harrow who served as his doctoral advisor. Moscow earned all three of his degrees in psychology from the University of Wisconsin: a bachelor’s degree in 1930, a master’s degree in 1931 and a doctorate in 1934.
Abraham Moscow began teaching at Brooklyn College in 1937 and continued to work as a member of the school’s faculty until 1951. During this time, he was heavily influenced by Gestalt psychologist Max Worthier and anthropologist Ruth Benedict. Moscow believed that they were such exceptional people that he began to analyze and take notes on their behavior. This analysis served as the basis for his theories and research on human potential. During the sass, Moscow became one of the founders and driving forces behind the school of thought known as humanistic psychology. His theories including the research of needs, self-actualization and peak experiences became fundamental subjects in the humanist movement.
At a time when most psychologists focused aspects of human nature that were considered abnormal, Abraham Moscow shifted to focus to look at the positive sides of mental health. His interest in human potential, seeking peak experiences and psychology. While Measles work fell out of favor with many academic psychologists, his theories are enjoying a resurgence due to the rising interesting in positive psychology. Abraham Moscow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 943. This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies.
These five needs are as follows:- Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life. Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc. Social needs- Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship. Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).
Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing. According to Moscow, individuals are motivated by unsatisfied needs. As each of these needs is significantly satisfied, it drives and forces the next need to emerge. Moscow grouped the five needs into two categories – Higher-order needs and Lower- order needs.
The physiological and the safety needs constituted the lower-order needs. These lower-order needs are mainly satisfied externally. The social, esteem, and self-actualization needs constituted the higher-order needs. These higher-order needs are generally satisfied internally, I. E. , within an individual. Thus, we can conclude that during boom period, the employees lower-order needs are significantly met. FIGURE: Measles Need Hierarchy Model Implications of Measles Hierarchy of Needs Theory for Managers As far as the physiological needs are concerned, the managers should give employees appropriate salaries to purchase the basic necessities of life.
Breaks and eating opportunities should be given to employees. As far as the safety needs are concerned, the managers should provide the so as to retain them. As far as social needs are concerned, the management should encourage teamwork and organize social events. As far as esteem needs are concerned, the managers can appreciate and reward employees on accomplishing and exceeding their targets. The management can give the deserved employee higher Job rank / position in the organization. As far as self-actualization needs are concerned, the managers can give the employees challenging Jobs in which the employees’ skills and competencies are fully utilized.