The Declaration of Independence Rhetorical Analysis Christian Johnson / P6 PART I The Declaration of Independence is considered by many to be the finest piece of political prose ever written. It can be seen as a document in five parts: the introduction, the preamble, the denunciation of George III, the denunciation of the British people, and the conclusion. We are going to closely examine the first three as a way to understand how Jefferson’s rhetorical strategies serves the political aims of the young colonies.
The introduction consists of the first paragraph, which is a single long sentence (periodic sentence for those who will do well in May). Read the first paragraph and come up with two reasons why Jefferson would frame the introduction in the way he did. Reason ISeen within its original context, however, it is a model of subtlety, nuance, and implication that works on several levels of meaning and allusion to orient readers toward a favorable view of America and to prepare them for the rest of the Declaration.
Textual SupportFrom its opening phrase, which sets the American Revolution within the whole “course of human events,” to its assertion that “the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God” entitle America to a “separate and equal station among the powers of the earth,” to its quest for sanction from “the opinions of mankind,” the introduction elevates the quarrel with England from a petty political dispute to a major event in the grand sweep of history.
It dignifies the Revolution as a contest of principle and implies that the American cause has a special claim to moral legitimacy–all without mentioning England or America by name. Reason IILabeling the Americans “one people” and the British “another” was also laden with implication and performed several important strategic functions within the Declaration. First, because two alien peoples cannot be made one, it reinforced the notion that breaking the “political bands” with England was a necessary step in the course of human events.
America and England were already separated by the more basic fact that they had become two different peoples. The gulf between them was much more than political; it was intellectual, social, moral, cultural and, according to the principles of nature, could no more be repaired, as Thomas Paine said, than one could “restore to us the time that is past” or “give to prostitution its former innocence. ” To try to perpetuate a purely political connection would be “forced and unnatural,” “repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things. ”
If you had to argue that the most important word in the first paragraph is necessary, how would you make that case? To say an act was necessary during the 18th century implied that it was impelled by fate or determined by the operation of inextricable natural laws and was beyond the control of human agents. Characterizing the Revolution as necessary suggested that it resulted from constraints that operated with law like force throughout the material universe and within the sphere of human action. The Revolution was not merely preferable, defensible, or justifiable.
It was as inescapable, as inevitable, as unavoidable within the course of human events as the motions of the tides or the changing of the seasons within the course of natural events Take a look at the second paragraph in which Jefferson sets forth a series of propositions (five in all) that have been called the clearest, most direct statements of political philosophy in the history of writing. Identify the five basic propositions that constitute Jefferson’s philosophy of government. Proposition I: All men are created equal. Proposition II: They are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights
Proposition III: Among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Proposition IV: To secure these rights governments are instituted among men Proposition V: Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it. Now take a look at the predicate of each one of Jefferson’s propositions and compare it to the subject of the following proposition. What has Jefferson done here? Chart out how the follow if ideas throughout this paragraph is controlled by the subjects and predicates (use a T-chart). Subject |Predicate | |they |all men, from proposition one | |these |man’s unalienable rights, from proposition two | |these |man’s unalienable rights, from propositions two and three | |these |securing man’s unalienable rights, from propositions two, three and | | |four | PART II 1.
Read the second paragraph and note how the rhythm (a rise and fall of the voice produced by the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language) of the sentence is constructed to highlight certain concepts. List the words that rhythm highlights and analyze the effect on the paragraph caused by the pattern of stressed words. 2. The Declaration of Independence can be reduced to a relatively syllogism: |Major premise: |[p|When government deliberately seeks to reduce the people under absolute despotism, the people have a right, indeed a| | |ic|duty, to alter or abolish that form of government and to create new guards for their future security. | |] | | |Minor premise: | |The government of Great Britain has deliberately sought to reduce the American people under absolute despotism. | |Conclusion: | |Therefore the American people have a right, indeed a duty, to abolish their present form of government and to | | | |create new guards for their future security. | The key premise is the minor premise, which explains why Jefferson spends two-thirds of his time establishing the validity of it. Take a look at the sentence(s) that introduce(s) the section that attacks King George III. The history of the present Kind of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these states. ” Why would Jefferson repeat the word history twice in this sentence? What are a couple of ways that this repetition is effective? ———————–  The preamble is presented as a logical demonstration, with one proposition leading to another proposition. From the first proposition (that all men are created equal), a chain of logic is produced that leads to the right and responsibility of revolution when a government becomes destructive of the people’s rights.
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