Production Efficiency

Part A: 1. Organization’s commitment to social responsibility takes the form of policies or pronouncements on what the organization intends to do to address its social impact in the community where it operates, which includes its stakeholders, suppliers and the general public.

As such, a key requirement in implementing an organization’s commitment to social responsibility is the buy-in from the board and the top executives which make the policies, and the support of the middle-management and employees which will implement the policies. To do this, the board and top executives must understand the firm’s effects as an organization, and everyone else must have a clear grasp of the direction where it is going.

Implementation involves the day-to-day operations, processes, activities, decisions and practices which will ensure that the organization’s socially responsible commitments and policies are carried out and met The main obstacles to implementing socially responsible policies are ,lack of clarity in policy statements, lack of a supporting structure system, processes and organization financial constraints programs and projects must have appropriate funding,lack of coordination among activities, lack of understanding and support from implementers middle management and employees.

Some specific actions that can be taken towards increased social responsibility’s are. Come up with ways for the organization to integrate socially responsible policies into day-to-day operations and individual activities. This can be done by involving middle managers, employees, and other key players in brainstorming sessions. Develop a strong communication plan : Internally, focus on motivating factors such as how social responsibility can be a source of competitive advantage for the organization in terms of low production cost, improved product value, and build-up of customer loyalty.

Externally, focus on making commitments public, not only to gain public attention, but to inform the public of what it is doing in terms of improving product value and customer service. Set measurable targets and continuously . Celebrating achievements can be a source of inspiration and increased commitment to social responsibility. 2. Departmentalization is the process of grouping activities, customers, or job functions into specialized groups of an organization to create better coordination. All large companies have multiple departments. These departments are specialized units that carryout pecific functions for a company. Most organizations have the functional departments of human resources, accounting, sales, and information technology. Types of Departmentalization 1) Functional: Groups of employees based on work performed (engineering, accounting, information systems, human resources). 2) Product: Groups of employees based on major product areas in the corporation ( woman’s footwear, men’s footwear, and apparel and accessories). 3) Customer: Groups of employees based on customer’s problem and needs (wholesale, retail, government). ) Geographic: Groups of employees based on location served North, South, Midwest, East). 5) Process: Groups of employees based on the basis of work or customers flow ( testing, payment) 3. Is a scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic planning process. Environmental factors internal to the firm usually can be classified as strengths (S) or weaknesses (W), and those external to the firm can be classified as opportunities (O) or threats (T). SWOT analysis means analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the firm’s resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. It is a useful strategic planning tool. It is based on the assumption that if managers carefully review internal strengths and weaknesses and external threat and opportunities, a useful strategy for ensuring organizational success can be formulated. As such, it is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. Strength. A firm’s strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive advantage.

It is an important organizational resource which enhances a company, competitive position. Some of the internal strengths of an organization are Distinctive competence in key areas ,Manufacturing efficiency like exclusive access to high grade natural resources, Skilled workforce, Adequate financial resources,Superior image and reputation such as strong brand names. -Economies of scale -Superior technological skills -Insulation from strong competitive pressures -Product or service differentiation -Proprietary technology such as patents and resultant ost advantages from proprietary know-how -favorable access to distribution network. Part B: . 1. Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects (driving toward six standard deviations between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process – from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. The statistical representation of Six Sigma describes quantitatively how a process is performing. . The balance of trade of a nation is the difference between values of its exports and imports. When exports are greater than imports, the nation is said to have a balance of trade surplus. On the other hand, if imports are greater than exports, the nation is said to have a balance of trade deficit. Exports and imports that figure in the balance of trade concept arise in the context of trade with other countries. Exports are the value of goods and services produced in the United States and sold to other countries . 3.

Perception is the process by which you become aware of objects and events in the external world. Perception occurs in five stages: (1) stimulation, (2) organization, (3) interpretation-evaluation, (4) memory, and (5) recall. 4. A decentralized organization is one in which decision making is not confined to a few top executives but rather is throughout the organization, with managers at various levels making key operating decisions relating to their sphere of responsibility. Decentralization is a matter of degree, since all organizations are decentralized to some extent out of necessity. . Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. It was proposed by Herbert A. Simon as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision making, as used in economics and related disciplines; it complements rationality as optimization, which views decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available.

Thus the decision-maker is a satisfies, one seeking a satisfactory solution rather than the optimal one. 6. Although an early study, this is still often referenced. It is notable that the two factors correlate with the people-task division that appears in other studies and also as preferences. Consideration is the people-orientation and Initiating Structure is the task orientation. Initiating Structure is the degree to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of the subordinates towards achieving the goals of the group. . Think of negative punishment as Removing Something pleasant with the goal of decreasing a behavior. Think of negative reinforcement as Removing Something unpleasant with the goal of Increasing the target behavior. 8. A system is commonly defined as a group of interacting units or elements that have a common purpose. The units or elements of a system can be cogs, wires, people, computers, and so on. Systems are generally classified as open systems and closed systems and they can take the form of mechanical, biological, or social systems.

Open systems refer to systems that interact with other systems or the outside environment, whereas closed systems refer to systems having relatively little interaction with other systems or the outside environment such as food and air and return other substances to their environment. 9. Basic tasks and functions of management include planning, organizing, staffing, motivating and controlling business and its activities. 10. Appraisals are most often used as a punitive tool, but they can be a very powerful management tool. Appraisals can help you find the areas that most motivate your employees and how to help them improve.

By understanding the areas that most motivate your employees, the appraisals can provide you with the most important tool to guide your staff. 11. A group is said to be in a state of cohesion when its members possess bonds linking them to one another and to the group as a whole. Social norms are described by sociologists as being laws that govern society’s behaviors. Although these norms are not considered to be formal laws within society, they still work to promote a great deal of social control. Social norms can be enforced formally through sanctions or informally through body language and non-verbal communication cues.

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