Principles of Development

Table of contents

Principles Of Development

  1. Early foundations are critical.
  2. Role of maturation and learning.
  3. Follows definite and predictable pattern.
  4. All individuals are different.
  5. Each phase has characteristic behaviour.
  6. Each phase of development has hazards.
  7. Development is aided by simulation.
  8. devt: is affected by cultural changes.
  9. Social expectations in every stage.
  10. Traditional beliefs about people of all ages.

Stages in life Span

  1. Pre-natal period – conception – birth
  2. Infancy -birth- end of 2w
  3. Babyhood – 2w- 2y
  4. Early childhood -2-6
  5. Late childhood -6-12
  6. Puberty -10/11 -13/14
  7. Adolescence -13/14 – 18
  8. Early adulthood -18-40
  9. Middle age -40-50 ma / 50-60
  10. Old age -60 -death

10 lunar months basic body structure and organs form rapid physical growth vulnerability to environmental influence is great

  • Heredity endowment
  • Heredity potentials influenced strongly by envt.
  • Fixing up of sex
  • High rate of growth(1cell to 20 inches length)
  • Period of hazards
  • Attitude of significant people

Developmental irregularities

  • Period of Foetus
  • miscarriage,
  • Pre-maturity,
  • delivery complications,
  • developmental


Factors influence development

  • Age of mother,
  • Illness and infections
  • Blood RH factor
  • Birth complications
  • Drugs, x-rays, envtl.
  • Hazards.

Paternal factors

  • smoke, alcohol, radiations , pesticide
  • Maternal emotions
  • Diet and physical condition of the mother
  • Hormones.

Infancy- neonate.

  • Extreme helplessness
  • Shortest period
  • Radical adjustment
  • Loss of weight
  • Disorganized behaviour
  • High mortality
  • Physical devt.
  • Increase height& weight, muscles
  • Bones and skeleton transformed
  • Brain cells grows
  • Breast feeding starts
  • Reflex of new born
  • Sex determination

Nature –Nurture influence

  • physical- obesity,
  • aging cognitive-IQ
  • psycho-social- Personality
  • reacting to situations, extrovert, depression, leadership, nail biting, sleepwalking, other emotions & disorders like schizophrenia, infantile autism, alcoholism.

Sensory capacity increases

  • Touch is the earliest sense
  • Smell- can distinguish different odour
  • Taste sense well developed

Hearing is least developed

  • Vision- half of the adult- color vision is absent or minimal
  • SIDS-sudden infant death syndrome-crib death

Motor development

  1. Head control
  2. Hand control
  3. Locomotion
  4. Grasping
  5. Rolling over
  6. Sitting up
  7. Crawling
  8. Standing

Common problems

  1. Unfavorable parental environment
  2. Multiple birth
  3. Complicated birth
  4. Post maturity- pre-maturity
  5. Infant mortality

Psychological –traditional beliefs

  • Helplessness ,
  • developmental lag,
  • plateau,
  • lack of stimulation,
  • new parent blue,
  • unfavorable attitude.


  • True foundation,
  • Age of rapid growth
  • Decreasing dependency
  • Increased individuality
  • Beginning of socialization
  • Sex role typing
  • Appealing age
  • Age of creativity.

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