|Policy Type||Summary of the Policy (in your own words)||Explain if the policy is effective and provide a rationale||Describe the financial outcomes of the policy||Provide examples of policy violations|
|National||The affordable care act is rolled by the national government to guarantee care to all citizens.||The policy has been effective in expanding healthcare coverage because the subsidies reduce the cost of treatment (Hahn, 2016).||The policy has reduced the cost of healthcare and help improve the general.||Private hospitals sometimes levy hidden charges that cannot be accommodated in this health package.
Patients sometimes use health cover cards that belong to other members of the family.
|National||The hospital funding act is a national policy aimed at expanding health coverage across the US.||The policy has exponentially influenced the senate and other government agencies to increase funding allocated to healthcare provision, thus, making healthcare more accessible (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).||Hospitals have better funding and adequate facilities to facilitate treatment since the policy has improved financial allocation.||Some hospitals misuse the extra funding or divert it to other uses outside healthcare accessibility.|
|State||The Pennsylvania health institution accountability act has clear provisions on expectations of government and private hospitals in terms of proper use of financial resources.||The policy defines the expectations and consequences of financial misappropriation. Thus, it has reduced cases of financial mismanagement in health institutions within Pennsylvania (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).||The act has improved on financial resource planning and facilitated the proper use of limited financial resources to improve healthcare (Keepnews, 2016).||Some incidences of financial misappropriation because of autonomy in private hospitals have been reported.|
|State||The Kentucky code of conduct for nurses defines the expected conduct for nurses and other healthcare professionals.||The act has reduced cases of ethical dilemmas in service delivery, such as financial misappropriation, since the act has stringent compliance rules (Hahn, 2016).||The policy has improved on financial accountability and general discipline among healthcare personnel.||Some healthcare personnel has taken advantage of the confidentially clause to commit financial fraud.|
|Institutional||The ANA nursing practice policy is an extension of professionalism in all aspects of healthcare providers, such as financial accountability, trust, and ethics.||This policy is the foundation upon which nurses and other healthcare professionals practice and execute their roles since it articulates and defines all the regulations and mandates of personnel in healthcare provision (Carthon et al., 2016).||The policy has improved accountability and works ethics for medical personnel.||This policy is silent on the legal ramifications of lack of accountability, thus, ineffective in promoting proactive and systematic healthcare facilitation.|
|Institutional||The professional nursing accountability act defines, highlights, and facilitates the use of financial resources in healthcare provision.||This policy has been effective and creation of strong management skills and network among registered nurses (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).||The policy has improved financial management skills among registered nurses.||The act is sometimes violated because of its multifaceted nature in defining the mandate of nurses.|
Institutional Policy as Influenced by National Policy
The professional nursing accountability act is an institutional policy that defines, highlights, and facilitates the use of financial resources in healthcare provision. The policy defines optimal balance in the essence of order, priority, group interest, and diversity. In a real sense, these aspects determine the success of this policy and its practicality in the formulation (Keepnews, 2016; Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).
Before the creation of this policy, the challenges identified included lack of confidence due to limited consultation, little common interests, and implementation hurdles. In the process of making this policy, the five stages observed were discovery, education, measurement, persuasion, and legitimization. Since a lot of time was allocated to legitimization, the policy has been successful in addressing the above challenge (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).
The professional nursing accountability act was influenced by the hospital funding act, which is a national policy aimed at expanding health coverage across the US. Through reviewing past data on the level of involvement in policy formulation in hospital funding, the professional nursing accountability act draws a concrete conclusion that citizen engagement promotes behavior and attitude change among the target policy beneficiaries (Carthon et al., 2016).
It is apparent that the process of national government involvement facilitated direct action and complete engagement of target group who are projected to benefit from the formulated policy on hospital funding. In order to address the challenge of logistics involved in creating a warm environment for balancing community participation in policy formulation and the complexities that come along with the same, the professional nursing accountability act borrowed heavily from the hospital funding bill, especially in terms of modeling implementation (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016). Same as the present case, the different forms of relationship between these two entities are characterized by unique advantages and disadvantages, depending on the scope of operation and interests in hospital funding and accountability (Carthon et al., 2016).
The passive inclusion was appropriate in national agencies that have a stronger sense for an executive order. It is apparent that structural orientation plays a major role in inclusion and exclusion in the process of addressing imperatives and aspirations that accompany confidence (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016). Thus, in defining the professional nursing accountability act, several working models of the hospital funding policy were incorporated.
The essence of proactive incorporation of the hospital funding policy elements was to facilitate the design for analyzing reactionary, innovative, hegemonic, and culturally oriented facets that influence the synthesis of innovative ideas on the ideal environment for nursing accountability (Keepnews, 2016). The professional nursing accountability act is meticulous in explaining the essence of social experience as a determinant factor in the transformation that has to involve professionalism in managing funds that have been facilitated by the hospital funding act (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).
This means that the professional nursing accountability act has borrowed heavily from the hospital funding policy’s network building, symbol assimilation, identity fashioning, and coalition forming as means for fostering inclusive and straightforward coherent results (Hahn, 2016). Thus, assimilation of network building among the stakeholders from the hospital funding policy has made the professional nursing accountability act receive fair approval among the target group at minimal tension (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016).
In contemporary society, irrespective of the form, formal or informal, the basis of operation remains the same, that is, the personal dimension must recognize the need for knowledge application with respect to culture (Cramer & Hoebelheinrich, 2016). Thus, the professional nursing accountability act has to function actively in the resultant balance between accountability and professionalism to guarantee the transformation of the hospital funding policy into practice.
This places the professional accountability act on the same path and the hospital funding policy to facilitate proactive and optimal use of limited resources to provide healthcare services (Salami, Dada, & Adelakun, 2016). Being an institutional policy, the professional accountability act is influenced by the financial management aspects of the hospital funding bill to facilitate its implementation without any hitch.
In conclusion, policy analysis points should be aimed at maintaining and stimulating conversation among lay advocates, scientists, and politicians who often share antagonistic views on healthcare accountability issues. The professional nursing accountability act was created to facilitate the functioning of the hospital funding act since it prepares healthcare professionals to be accountable in financial management.
Carthon, J., Kelly, W. N., Danielle, A. S., & Julie, F. (2016). Effective strategies for achieving scope of practice reform in Pennsylvania. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 17(4), 99–109.
Cramer, M., & Hoebelheinrich, K. (2016). Informing health policy decision makers: A Nebraska scope of practice case study. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 17(4): 85–98.
Hahn, E. J. (2016). A policy analysis of smoke free legislation in Kentucky. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 17(4), 66–75.
Keepnews, D. M. (2016). Developing a policy brief. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 17(4), 61–65.
Salami, B., Dada, F. O., & Adelakun, F. (2016). Human resources for health: Challenges in Nigeria and nurse migration. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice 17(4), 76–84.