Miracle of Life

Lesson 6 1. Describe the ideal setting for a baby’s birth. (500 words) ‘Before him there is a period of life different from that which he led in the womb ‘the spiritual embryo Care of the newborn Child has two lives: Age starts when life starts from the time the child is conceived natal being life

PrenatalBeforenot enough attention PostnatalAftermost attention Maria Montessori believed not enough attention was given to pre natal life and the actual birth of the child. Trauma at birth Until the moment of birth, the baby is in a warm fluid, protected from the bright lights, sounds and drop in body temperature. We have to consider the great adaptation the baby has to make leaving the mothers womb and entering the great big world. Environment Baby’s 1st experience of breathing on his own (before via mums umbilical cord) Baby’s 1st experience of carrying his own body mass.

Baby’s 1st experience to feel his sense of touch (skin, blanket etc) Baby’s 1st experience of the impact of light and sound We cannot say exactly how the baby feels by conscious awareness and memory, but we cannot assume that he is insensitive to all the factors. ‘mneme’ Recording by the unconscious memory of all the sensations experienced which influence the learning and development of every individual and therefore influence the later development of the child. How sensations affect the child. What mom’s environment becomes a part of who the child becomes? Immediately after birth Maria Montessori believed experience immediately after birth are important factors in the Childs subsequent development and the importance of the mother to the child. * Ideally the child should be delivered into his mothers hands in a calm environment in a warm room that is dimly lit. * Should be left to bond with his mother immediately after birth, leaving the weighting and bathing for afterwards. * The body of the newborn is delicate. The skeleton is not fully ossified, the bones of the feet are still cartilaginous and the skull is not joined over the top of the brain. Extreme care should be taken in handling the newborn child. * Traditional attention should be given to emotion. * Childs needs are to be considered and emphasized at all times. First days of life * Initially not realized the child has mental needs in his first two years of life. * Maria Montessori believed in the unconscious absorbent mind (0 to 3 years) * Consider transformations, adaptions, achievements during the 1st periods of life. * Conscious absorbent mind (3 to 6 years) Good example: a child who didn’t feel love will find it hard to drive. * Active seekers in this world.

Always looking for impressions to absorb. * This becomes an integral part of his personality * Children who are not allowed to grow and develop do not thrive. * A mother gives off an unnoticed force that the child is familiar with; this helps him to go threw difficult days. * The communication between mother and newborn still exist even after baby has left the womb.

Lesson 7 1. Set out a diet for 1 day in winter and 1 day in summer for a 4 year old. Include a table for each day detailing the nutritional value. group| servings per day | examples| grain| 6| Rice, pasta, breads, cereals, muffins| egetable| 3| Cucumber, broccoli, carrot, cauliflower ,spinach| fruit| 2| Apple, banana, strawberry, pear, grapes, melons| dairy| 2| Milk, cheese, yoghurt, smoothie| meat| 2| Chicken, mutton, beef, beans| Fats | 1| Sugar, honey, butter, margarine, oil| Nutrient| benefit| | zinc| Essential for normal growth and physical developmentOptimal immune function| | | | | Essential fatty acids| Metabolic & structural functions| | iron| Essential for building healthy blood cells| | Vitamin B complex| Energy production and releaseImmune function and nervous system| | | | |

Vitamin A| Normal visionHealthy skinSkeletal developmentTooth developmentBoost resistance to infection| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Vitamin C & E| Antioxidant vitaminsKeeps cells healthyBoost the immune system to help body resist infection| | | | | | | | Vitamin D| Increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorusVital for healthy bones and teeth| | | | | carbohydrates| Provides energy| | proteins| Materials for growth and repair| | fats| Materials for growth and repair| | Vitamins| Helps regulate body process| | minerals| Growth and repair and regulate body process| |

BALANCED MEAL 5 TIMES A DAY Winter Breakfast | 30g Oats cooked with 250ml low fat milk and cinamonand 1 banana| Playtime snack| 1 small fruit yogurt1 bran muffin| lunch| Tuna mayo sandwhich served with salad (lettuce, carrots, cumcumber, pineapple)| Afternoon snack| 2 wholewheat crackers and a small handful of raisins and nuts| supper| Pasta with meatballs and tamato sauce| Summer Breakfast | French toast dipped in egg and fried in butter, sprinkled with cheese and a glass of milk| Playtime snack| Fruit and nut Muesli and plain yoghurt| unch| Pasta with salmon and mushroomAnd a glass of fresh orange juice| Afternoon snack| 1 fresh fruit salad and a bran muffin| supper| Chopped steak served with rice and spinache, Corn on the cob and sweet potato| What would you do to help a child who has feeding problems? (500 words)

A healthy child is active in body mind and spirit. If a child is active, developing adequately and growing at the expected rate for his age than the food refusal should be regarded as a phase of development. Being a picky eater may be normal. Toddlers are so fussy about what and how much they eat so every bite should be pure yet nourishing.

It is of utmost importance that your child does follow a healthy balanced diet as her brain is developing at an amazing rate. After a year of rapid growth, (first year) the average one year old triples in weight, toddlers gain weight more slowly and need less food due to a decreased appetite and a sense of security other than food. Another reason is toddlers are suddenly mobile and curious to discovery, which makes them less interested in food. Toddlers also become more independent at this stage learning they have little or more control over choices.

Their taste buds are more discerning, so they know exactly what kind of food they do and don’t like. Children may also get stuck on certain food and then suddenly dislike eating them after a while. So snacking is an important part of a toddler’s diet but too many snacks in-between meal times may also play a part in the toddler not eating proper meals during breakfast, lunch or supper. Another big mistake is too many drinks during the day. Water is the best option. As it is essential for living but not considered as a nutrient. But has no artificial colours yet will keep the body well hydrated.

By the age of 4 or 5 years children should become god eaters if parents guide them correctly during there toddler years. With good eating habits instilled children are less likely to develop eating disorders and becoming obese, and less likely to suffer diseases such as heart conditions and diabetes eating should never be a ‘battle of wills’ and early independence in feeding should be allowed and encouraged. we must bear the nutrients in mind and how we use them towards planning a meal. Bearing in mind if there are any special diets to consider. Meal times

Valuable social time for family members or children in a class can get together for a common purpose so make food look attractive and fun. Learning opportunities to develop motor skills and co ordinate the use of fork and knife. Practical communication skills and develop social skills like table manners. Encourage children to learn responsibility by helping prepare food, laying the table and proper food hygiene, and food storage Learn where food comes from, how it keeps us healthy and grace and courtesy. Mealtimes should be social and educational. Lesson 8 1. a) Why are teacher-parent relationships so important? include 10 factors in your answer) 2. b) How can we involve parents in the life of the school? (include 10 factors in your answer) Lesson 9 1. A) What are the basic psychological needs? (500 words) We need to understand that children have different needs at different stages and levels in their development, within five vast categories namely Social Intellectual Emotional Physical Spiritual Children begin to develop and become skilled even before they are born. Discovery never stops, it continues through our childhood and adulthood. Each stage is totally unique from the next.

The child has a totally different manner of thinking, different characteristics, and different needs and these require totally different surroundings , different opportunities, a different way of learning and even a different willing adult to help fulfill the childs needs. Periods of development are vital as children absorb very fast creating a foundation to what their future is built on. We need to learn how to guide them to strong concrete foundations for a better future. We need to realize children from all backgrounds, countries and race develop in the same basic ways. The child is in a continual state of growth and metamorphosis.

Bodily or physical change The comparision of a new born is completely different from that of an adult. NEEDS| NEW-BORN| 2-3 YEAR OLD| 6 YEAR OLD| physical| Needs must be fulfilled by an adultNeed of movementRelationship with mother| Needs activityNeeds to touch and explorePurposeful activityAcknowledgment and couragespace| More energy Can challenge themselvesPerfect refine movements| emotional| Need for loveSecurityNeed to trust environmentRoutine consistency| Confident and happyCreates independenceChild deserves respectChild learns to trust| Need to feel satisfied without being acknowledged| intellectual| 0-3 years| 3-6 years| Calm, serene, peacefull| Need activities to stimulate ntellectual developmentLanguage and educationNumeracyWorking with hands| spiritual| The same needs apply to ll ages| | Will have the need for love and to express it to othersTo be respected and show respect to othersTo feel joy and happiness and to show it to othersPurpose in life. | social| | CHARACTERISTICS| NEWBORN| 2-3 YEAR OLD| 6 YEAR OLD| hysical| MovesDependent on motherMovement of limbsLarge heavy headSoft on skull| Active/balanceGetting into proportion with body for balanceWalks independentlyUse sensesUse maximum strengthSkin soft and hairy| Body streamlinedTaller and independentMore balanceBetter- co ordinationMore strength| emotional| Cries to show emotionsDependant on adultMust be lved to fulfill emotions| Shows emotion in body language| Talks to express emotions| intellectual| One year old| 6 year old| Immatates and observesRemembersAtraacted to colours, sounds and shapesShort concentraton p| Does things on their ownConscious acts taking place| spiritual| Immates you prayingSense of whats happeningPure and innocentInstinct and connectionAbsorbing suroundings| Innocent and accepting to everyoneDevelopes by interactionIs contentShows joyDevelopes independence| Shows joy and contentment feels completesharing| social| | | | Mental change 6 months| Recognizes familiar faces| 1 year | Say 1ST word| 2 years| Use of objects by trial and error. Can use names. Knows difference between one and many.

Understands simple language| 2 years +| Understands more words than usedKnows own genderWill try blocks and shapesImagination developes| 3 years| Knows own age in yearsKnows difference between big and smallCan judge depth and height| 4 years| Speaks more fluent using many wordsKnows yesterday , today and tomorrowUnderstands higher, longer, heavierTries to reason but gets confussed| 5 years| Can see and judge objects wellCan count well May lean to readMay learn to write| b) What can us as teachers do to provide for these psychological needs? (500 words) the environment most suited to meet his needs he work opportunities most suitable to his needs to learn in a way most suitable to his needs the adult most suitable to his needs surroundings that best suit the child 0-3 years home enviroment| | 3-6 year pre school enviroment| Safe stimulating environmentLoving communication with all the childrenCleanHappy and friendlyFreedom and spacecomfortable| | Safe and cleanRoom for playStimulating purposefull gamesBright and cheerful surroundingsCalm and peacefulChild friendlyFree choiceVertical groupingSocial awareness| Emotional and spiritual needs| | newborn| toddler| |

LoveCareConsistencySafetySecuritynaturing| TrustSpaceFriendly safe enviroment| | Opportunities the child needs| Type of adult best suited to the child| | Newborn and toddler| 3-6 year old| MoveWork with handsExploreExpress themselvesGive and receive lovePositive role modelsGiven choices| ResponsibleMatureLovingPatientTrustworthyHappy/ joyfullVigilant to needsCalmrespectfull| Positive role modelStimulatingCreativeEducationalAdapt to different needsSpontaneousReliable| Emotional changes happy| When they get food or something they wantor when seeing their mother again after being away from her for a while. Sad| When they leave their parents or family or friendsOr not getting what they want| afraid| When someone shouts or loud banging noisesOr if they near an unfamiliar animal or surroundingOr even if there is a thunder storm| Children cannot easily talk about their feelings, often it is because they donot have the right words to express themselves. By helping them to learn words we would help them to talk about there feelings. It is also important to observe a childs behaviour to understand what the child is feeling. it is very important we listen to the child so we can understand what he is trying to inform us.

By listening to what a child is feeling it gives the child a sense of respect . by listening to them we will encourage them to express what they feelings more often. In this way it will help build the childs confidence as they will be more aware. It will also be a great example teaching them to also be willing and compassionate in listening to other peoples feelings. We need to listen to what the child is feeling. If it is fear we need to help them not be afraid and explain the difference between real fear and anxiety. Children can express there emotions in various ways

Through songs and singing Drawings Discussion groups books puppets 2. Describe an exercise that would help the child use his own will, mind, body and spirit and contrast it with one that would not help him to function as an integrated whole. (500 to 600 words) include an explanation of your choices in your answer. Lesson 10 1. What are the three stages of obedience? Give detailed descriptions and examples. (150 words for each stage) Young children can repeatedly experience periods of spontaneous concentration on a piece of work freely chosen.

They will begin to display the characteristics of a normal development for the love of work, attachment to reality, the love of silence, to work alone. Wills development Three stages in development of will. Law of work Repetition of an activity Attention polarized Degree of concentration Obvious satisfaction Independence and power to the child Law of independence self discipline as a way of life choice of his own freedom as a person point of self knowledge and self possession artistic use of his own talent accountable for his own actions confinement within the truth of actuality ower of attention c)power to obey this power is a natural observation ‘shows itself’ impulsively and unexpected after the procedure of maturity 2. Discuss how deviations in children manifest themselves. (500 words)-That Secret of childhood. What is meant by the term deviations Behaiour commonly seen in children that is the result of some obstacle to normal development. Such behaviour ( serious or not) may be understood as negative. (timidity, destructiveness, untidiness, disobedience,, greed, egoism or positive. ( passive child) What is a single factor resulting in such deviations

The child s unable to develop according to his inner psychic guide due o a hostile unsatisfactory environment encounted during those formative years of the unconscious absorant mind. Lesson 11 1. What is the main key for being able to mix all types and ages of children in the learning environment? (150 words) 2. What are the five different modes of learning? State the 5 different modes of learning with a short explanation of each mode, to show your understanding. Development of movement Devlopeent of language Development of independence Development of freedom Principals revealed through the childs development Imagine that you wish to integrate a handicapped child. Describe what you would be aware of and how you would help. (400 to 500 words) include in your answer the physical environment, the other children and the spiritual preparation of the directress. Ikraam, a brainy lad that’s full of passion for life decides a wheelchair will not hold him back. Despite his survival on a manual wheelchair a VP shunt and his renal treatment, Ikraam wants to attend school and have fun with friends like any other four year old. At 1st the challenge seemed far fetched but on noticing the little boys will I asked the mum if I could spend some time with Ikraam.

Assessing the child was paramount as I realized his needs where special. I was amazed as his personality and how quick a trust was built. His potential was exploding with ideas. His mobility was beyond words. Like everything he lst in his legs where made up for in his mind and speech. I noticed his well nourished body bulge to one side. He had absolutely no movements in his lower limbs. When I put him on the carpet he abled himself to sit independently balancing on one hand. He walked around pulling his bottoms to where he wanted to be. He had ability and a strong sense of personal dignity.

This child could not be deprived of a Montessori environment. I arranged he be sent him to school with a care taker to ensure his safety at all times and decided to take it a step at a time. Fortunately very minor adjustments had to be made with regard to ramps etc. but we became more observant of pick up and drop of. And made parents more aware of Ihram’s needs The other children were amazing around Ikraam. They were always curious and willing to accommodate for his needs. A lot of mystery entered their little minds as in to why cant this boy walk and run. Why is he in a wheelchair?

They befriended him just like every other child but they wanted to know why. So we kindly arranged for the mum to explain Ikraam’s disability and how they could help him to help himself. All the tables and chairs were child sized and Ikraam insisted on sitting on a chair like every other child. I realized he knew what’s best for himself but it was not safe enough for him to be sitting alone. An idea popped in my head, I had an organza runner over the display table. I had it washed and ready for the next day. Time to be in his chair I tied it several times around his entire upper body and chair.

And it worked like a dream. That’s when I realized Spiritually I had to be very positive and devoted to my task. I also had to bear in mind every child is special and carried the same right as Ikraam. I needed to trust Ikraam to the freedom of choice. Trust the children to treating him equally and helping when he needed it and to trust myself in being a guide and trusting and observing the outcome. 3. Useful development chart Imagine a child with a certain disability and fill in the chart as you would expect to find him in attainment in the early development stages. Fill this n on the chart provided on pg 36 of the manual. The chart can be copied manually or photocopied for submission. This should be a practical question and we recommend that the learner observes such a child before filling in the chart. Useful development chart Name: Ikraam JeewaDate:17 February 2012 Address: 50 Tagore Drive Roshnee Gross motor| success| Some success| No success or very little| Balance (left, right of own body)| | x| | Laterality and direction| x| | | Co-ordination (jumping etc. )| | | x| Body image (going round and threw objects)| | x| | Rhythmic movement| | x| | | | | Fine motor| | | | Co-ordination of fingers and other small muscles| | x| | | | | | Visual motor and perception| | | | Visual regognition| x| | | Visual discrimination| x| | | Visual memory| x| | | | | | | Auditory-motor perception| | | | Recognition of sounds| x| | | Discrimination of sounds| x| | | Auditory memory| x| | | | | | | Communication| | | | Listening ability| x| | | Understanding| x| | | Good vocabulary| x| | | Use of grammar correctly| x| | | | | | | Concept formation| | | | Matching| x| | | Sorting| x| | | Making associations| x| | | Making relationships| x| | |

Understanding of ‘same’ or ‘different’| x| | | SECTION 3 Lesson 12 1. a) What are the reasons for these exercises? Your answer must include comments on the role and function of the teacher and why children are attracted to “practical life” exercises. (1000 words) For us as adults it’s the simple activities we perform daily that control our environment, our everyday chores where the end result is more important than the process itself. We do it because we have to as it relates to our social environment, in order for us to maintain social relationships. A means of us fitting into society.

To a child ‘practical life’ is very important, because it is the strongest link between home and school. A child from birth grows up living and watching the adults around him, so he adapts to his environment around him. Watches his parents in their everyday lives and that’s how he constructs his reality. So when he goes out and realizes everybody does what his parents do it becomes a norm in society. So to a child performing and perfecting activities must be as real as possible as part of his development. To a child the process is much more important than the end result.

Maria Montessori introduced the activities of practical life because she observed their interest was familiar to activities the children observed in their own homes. They means of satisfying the child’s needs and tendencies common to all children regardless of their age, race or background. According to Dr Montessori’s observations, she discovered the 12 needs and tendencies that were noticed (secret of childhood page 119) 1) Child prefers to work instead of play. 2) Child has amazing concentration. 3) Each child learns at his own pace. 4) Child has a tendency to repeat. 5) Child has a love for order. ) Child needs choice. 7) Children do not need reward or punishment. 8) Children love silence and working alone. 9) Children don’t need sweets as a distraction. 10) Children have a strong sense of personal dignity. 11) Children can read after they write. 12) Children develop positive self-discipline. 13) Practical life activities indirectly prepare children for other areas of the learning environment. Practical life as a foundation for future learning. Builds up good practical working relations and good working habits. Activities are character forming. It integrates the mind and body through the use of hands.

They reason and act intellectually. The role of a directress * Service Always be available to be of service to the children. Maintain order Remove obstacles that distract learning. Act as a role model Be calm, graceful and courteous. Follow all ground rules. Practice what is preached in the classroom. * Self preparation Constantly strive for knowledge Prepare yourself spiritually, physically, emotionally and intellectually. * 3 stages of preparation 1) Custodian and keeper of the environment Caretaker of equipment Apparatus in perfect order. Beautiful, clean and shining No parts missing 2) Behavior towards children

Entice the child to work Protect the child from distraction Be just and fair Be consistent 3) Child’s interest in apparatus Build up child’s concentration with practical life exercises Compliment only when the child has completed Don’t offer help to a struggling child Re present activity when needed Show how to use equipment Present or re presents it in steps Guide threw materials Active at the beginning Passive afterwards Settled environment as if distress is not there Have faith in the child End of the year children normalize Mingle around children Recognize children’s motivation Freedom to choose task

Motivation from within Inner self/child to guide child The greatest sign for a distress is the ability is to say ‘The children are working now as if i don’t exist’ quote (absorbent mind) When the class becomes undisciplined look at you Sort it out and correct it. Learn from your mistake and don’t repeat it. It is the directress dedication that helps prepare, normalize and maintains, need and order in the environment. She has to make sure items are intact, complete and always maintained. Note all items needed for each activity is arranged and should readily be available in a tray or basket before you begin the activity.

Practice and rehearse the presentation of a new task several times. Give facial expression, the attitude is important. A check has to be done of all teaching materials before and after every new day. Distress needs to be patient and present each activity step by step. Each activity consists of a series of individual movement and threw the activity the child learns attention . Practical exercises require little or no talking. Important what you say or don’t say. All attention should be placed on action. The distress doesn’t have to check for right and wrong but she should make the child very aware of control of error.

She needs to teach the child to search for inspection. Children should be able to realize error for him and that should make him target better results every time. In that way he won’t need praise or blame. She has to introduce fresh and interesting new ideas from time to time. I Analysis of movement and clarity of each distinct movement draws the child’s attention to activity. A distress should realize it’s not only the immediate aim of the material but the long term fulfilled task that matters. Recording all important writings that help in a Montessori environment. Acquire new skills constantly.

Characteristics of tools and materials of practical life. Essential for a distress to keep in mind when creating a practical life environment. * Materials have real working direct or indirect aim. * Materials must be child sized and attractive. Materials must be adapted to child * Materials must be real to the control of error. Children can learn to use glass etc… * Materials need to be in good repair order. Children won’t want to use broken items. * Materials need to be freely available for free choice. Children shouldn’t have to ask for it. It should be in their reach. Materials should be relevant and culture specific. * Activities should start from simple to complex. It helps order of the mind. * Only one set of activity should be kept per environment. Teaches children patience and sharing. * Materials should be kept in meticulous order. * Materials should be at children’s eye level b) What are the four main groups of “practical life”? There are four groups of exercises of Practical Life. 1) a) Elementary movements – simple easy tasks that develops skills e. g. : spooning, pouring, cutting etc b) Primilary movements -1st steps to success. To know basics E. . : to roll ; unroll a mat etc 2) Caring ; looking after the environmentIndoor ; outdoor- E. g. : dusting, sweeping, table scrubbing etc 3) Care of personal self hygiene E. g. : Dressing, combing hair, brushing teeth etc 4) Social SkillsGrace and courtesy E. g. ; whispering, greeting, speaking softly etc Lesson 13 1. How would you cater for: pg9 sec 3 a) The child’s physical needs? (250 words) b) His emotional needs? (250 words) c) His social needs? (250 words) d) Five areas of childhood development from practical life activities. e) Physical-fine and gross motor skills.

Helps control movements, co-ordination, dexterity and character. f) Emotional child gains independence, self-esteem, confidence, trust and self-discipline. g) Social child learns acceptable behavior. Politeness and develops a sense of helpfulness h) Intellectual- aided by organized, orderly work, reasoning skills, organized skills and language development. i) Spiritual – Activities in practical life feeds the soul. j) k) l) 2. Select one exercise from each of the main groups of “practical life” and write out in full using the same heading as those set out for “sweeping” on page 23 of your manual.

The length of each exercise will depend on the number of actions for each section. Be careful to brake down each action in detail. Elementary movementsspooning Material. Tray, Sugar Beans,(placed already in a glass bowl,) another identical empty bowl, a spoon with a long enough handle for the child to hold Presentation. 1) Invite the child ‘would you like to do some spooning today? ’ 2) Take the child to the shelf to see where it is kept 3) Name the material so the child knows in future 4) Show the child how to carry the tray from the shelf to the table 5) Sit on the right of a right handed child ) Tell the child I’ll show you how then you can get a turn’ 7) Place the 2 bowls apart from each other on the tray Slowly pick up the spoon griping between your thumb and index finger 8) Gently scoop a spoon full of beans 9) Steadily hold the filled spoon for a few seconds waiting for beans to settle 10) Slowly move the spoon to the empty bowl working from right to left 11) Gently tilt the spoon so the beans easily fall out of the spoon into the bowl 12) Pause, make eye contact with the child 3) Continue from step 8 again to step 11 until the full bowl is empty 14) Pause so the child understands all the beans are now in the empty bowl 15) Without moving the bowls gently scoop a spoon full of beans 16) Steadily hold the filled spoon for a few seconds waiting for beans to settle 17) Slowly move the spoon to the empty bowl now working from left to right 18) Gently tilt the spoon so the beans easily fall out of the spoon into the bowl 19) Pick up between finger and thumb every dropped bean and return to unspoiled bowl 20) Gently continue until the original bowl is filled with the beans again 21) Make sure no spilt beans on the tray or left in the bowl 22) Offer the child a turn 23) Watch and wait patiently with arms neatly on your lap 24) When the child is done from the full bowl to the empty 25) Then again from left to right 26) Encourage the child to pack the tray the same way it was found 27) Show the child how to take it back to the shelf 28) Allow the child to go back with you 9) And see where and how you placing the tray back again 30) Give the child permission to use whenever he likes. Direct Aim from one bowl to another ; how to hold a spoon Indirect Aim concentration, pencil grip, strengthen wrist Control of errorthe noise of dropping beans on the tray Age of interest2, 3 and 4 years Final social skillsHelps child eat independently Points of interestwhen the bowl gets completely empty Looking after the environmentTable Scrubbing Material. Presentation. Direct Aim Indirect Aim Control of error Age of interest Language Points of interest Care of themselvesBlowing Nose with tissues Material. Presentation. Direct Aim Indirect Aim

Control of error Age of interest Language Points of interest Social intercourse-How to walk without stepping on anther child’s work Material. Presentation. Direct Aim Indirect Aim Control of error Age of interest Language Points of interest a) What is the benefit to the child of the ‘Silence Game’? (500 words) b) When would you expect the child to be able to play the ‘Silence Game’? Include 5 points an expand on each one. Lesson 14 1. What is meant by the ‘Periods of Sensitivity’? List and discuss the main ‘Sensitive Period’s’(800 words) the sensitive period for co-ordinated movement the child is sensitive to movement/ activity and work through out life eak: 1 to 2 years of age to enable the child to explore his own environment and perfect himself and his personality through work with his hands. The childs life force, the horme, drives this need to develop co-ordinated movement, which is vital to thechilds life. Without movement the spirit dies and thechild has no intelligence. The sensitive period focuses the childs whole attention on leaning to walk and dvelope his balance using his hands and then to unite these functions so he can work. Movement being physical movement eg moving hands , feet, body as well as movement of the mind eg his eyes move and take in all that’s around him making the mind move. child takes +_ a year before his mobile because so much has to happen in a childs mind before he is able to rackle life at a faster pace. we therefore realize that much movement is in the mind, where the hands, mouth and eyes work as instruments of the mind for walking to take place. Nabeelas pink file 2. What happens if we starve children of the right environment for these ‘Sensitive Periods’? (100-150 words) 3. What is the Absorbent Mind’? Include in your answer when and how the child’s mind becomes fully conscious. (500 words) 4. Write out in full the ‘3 period lesson’ that you would give your child to teach the color names ‘red’ and ‘blue’.

You would f course have made sure the child is able to recognize the colors by easily pairing the color tablets first. 5. List, in your own words at least 5 characteristics of the Sensorial Didactic materials. SECTION 4 Lesson 15 1. Choose two pieces of sensorial material and describe in your own words how to present them. In your answer include the materials to be used, direct and indirect aims, control of error and age of interest. The presentation should be in sequence and consist of at least 12 actions. 2. Make a list of 12 words you could use for each of the presentations you did in question 1? 3. a) Why should the child be free to repeat the materials again and again? 500 words) c) What is the difference between ‘adult time’ and ‘child time’ and why do you think nature has made it like this? (500 words) Lesson 16 1. a) What is the small child interested in from the sounds around him (150 words) B) is there a sensitive period for language and how does it show itself? Discuss each one from birth to six years of age (800 words) c) Who is a well-known researcher on language? Explain how Maria Montessori, through her observation and insight set the stage for researchers work. (200 words) d) How does the sensorial material help language acquisition? Pg 43 manual for assistance. (500 to 800 words) 2. a) Why is movement important for reading ability? (200 words) b) What are the skills that have to be integrated to be able to read?

List all 5 skills and give a brief description of each one. c) How can a mother give her child reading encouragement? (20 points) d) How can a Montessori teacher see that a child has help applicable to the time before beginning to read? Include at least 10 points. e) Draw the four basic symbols for writing. f) What is meant by; the explosion in writing? ’ include in your answer all the aids. List some activities in the practical life and sensorial areas that assist the child as well. (700 words) g) Describe the presentation of the sandpaper letters. Include the 3 period lessons. h) Describe the metal insets and write out the full presentation of the metal insets.

Remember to include all the headings as per the manual. i) Describe the first presentation you would do with the movable alphabet? (120 words) j) How many different activities can you think of that the child might enjoy doing with the movable alphabet? Include at least 10 activities. k) When would you know the child would rather write by himself? (120 words) l) In what way would the child still use the movable alphabet? List 5 activities. SECTION 5 Lesson 17 1. Make a list of the main types of materials or activities which will help to develop the child’s language ability. List at least 10 points and explain each one, including practical life and sensorial activities. 2.

Make a list of all the activities that the child with the ability to build up words phonetically. List at least 10 activities and explain each one. 3. Make a set of reading cards showing something new for this day and age. Refer to diagram in handbook for correct size. Use white card and write the names with a black fine line pen. Remember to write in lower case letters as per example. Your writing must be neat and consistent as possible. The materials you submit should be of a high standard, as if they were made for the classroom. Correct font used for all material. Words must always be centered on the card. a b c d e f g h I j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 4.

Why is the grammar more enjoyed at this early stage than later? (200 words) 5. Make a set (6) of pink (3 letter phonetic words). Each set must consist of 6 cards with a picture and 6 cards with the corresponding word. Use pale pink and pale blue cardboard, 6cm x 6cm each. 6. Choose a short paragraph from a book that you admire. Write it out and draw in color the grammar symbols above each word. If you find this too difficult, make up a series of sentences for yourself. 7. Geography – Make the land and water forms with their names. Example and size in hand book. For the land use either brown paper, green or brown cardboard. For the sea use blue cardboard. 8.

Make a land and water form definition booklet for ne form at least. Refer to manual. Page 34 9. Write out the general way of developing one particular detail in one subject by ‘classified reading’, e. g. Details of a bird. Pictures should be identical, on white cardboard and one part picked out in red each time with matching name and a definition booklet. Make the material and write out in detail how to present it. E. g. in handbook. 10. Write an account of the work of the two sides of the brain. (500 to 600 words) 11. How would you prepare the environment for the children to learn a second language? (500 to 700 words)- use some of your own ideas. SECTION 6

Lesson 18 1. Make a math’s chart for yourself, showing clearly the main materials for each major step in the earl arithmetic. The chart should start with the number rods, through and including the birds eye view of the decimimal system. Your answers should be in sequence. The chart should be the size that complies with the regular postage size for easy mailing. It may consist of more than one page. 2. Choose two of the following and describe how they are presented: Number rods Spindles Counters and cards Teen boards Include headings as per presentation in manual and include in your answer two exercises that come before and after this presentation. 3.

What are the main characteristics of the mathematical materials as described on pages 5 to 8 inclusive. (800 words) 4. Describe the presentation, using the golden beads , of one of the following operations: Subtraction Multiplication Division Include headings as per presentation in manual and include in your answer 2 exercises that come before and after this presentation. 5. Describe in detail all the exercises you have been introduced so far to teach addition, state how each leads the child towards abstraction. Describe at least 5 exercises in sequence. 6. List some extra exercises one could use not using Montessori materials, to help gain an understanding of number and the various operations involved in the study of mathematics.

List at least 10 activities. 7. ‘And if we look now at sensorial apparatus which is able to evoke such deep concentration, there is no doubt that this apparatus may be regarded not only as a help to exploring the environment, but also to the development of the mathematical mind. ’ 9’the absorbent mind. Chap 7) Discuss referring to unit 6, particularly pages 5-9 inclusive and mathematics which can be found in your own environment. (500 words) SECTION 7 Lesson 19FURTHER EXERCISES IN ADDITION 1. Describe the dot game. Give an example and say how it may be used. (refer to manual) 2. Describe the presentation of the addition strip board. (refer to manual) 3.

How the control of error is used in the addition charts? Incl all 5 chart. Lesson 20FURTHER EXERCISES IN SUBTRACTION 1. What are the main characteristics of the subtraction strip board? ( list at least 6 characteristics) 2. Describe in detail the methods of a) decomposition b) complementary addition used in teaching subtraction what are the essential differences between the 2 methods? (page 16 of manual) lesson 21FURTHER EXERCISES IN MULTIPLICATION 1. Describe how you would teach children to multiply by 10 and 100 ( page 16 manual) 2. Explain the use f the working charts in the teaching of tables. As per exercise 1, 2 and 3 of manual. Page 19.

Lesson 22FURTHER EXERCISES IN DIVISION 1. Describe how you would use the stamp game in teaching long division. ( page 20 manual) Lesson 23THE SMALL BEAD FRAME 1. Make an outline sketch of and list the main characteristics of the small bead frame. Do this question on your own. List at least 10 points. Lesson 24FACTORS ; PRIME NUMBERS 1. Prepare a list of the prime numbers found between numbers 1 to 100. ( do this question on your own) Lesson 25LINEAR ; LIQUID MEASUREMENT 1. Devise further problems to enable children to use and apply measurement or prepare a working list of examples, to use with children, to enable them to further their knowledge of capacity.

Lesson 26THE LARGE BEAD FRAME 1. Write a brief outline of how you would use the large bead frame to help children count up to 1, 000,000 (one million) (pg35) Lesson27LONG MULTIPLICATION WITH BANK GAME 1. Describe the sets of number cards used in teaching long multiplication. (pg 38) Lesson 28FRACTIONS 1. How would you introduce written symbols in the teaching of fractions give e. g. ( pg 41) 2. Devise a list of examples to be used to prepare children to understand the concept of equivalence of fractions. List at least 5 e. g. 3. Describe I detail the stages of preparing children to understand the division of fractions using the divided skittles. (pg 43) use own e. g. nd feel free to use sketches Lesson 29GEOMETRY 1. a) List the metal insets used to introduce geometry. (pg 45 manual) b) Show how they are used to enable children to understand equivalent, identical and similar figures. (pg46) Lesson 30MONEY 1. List the stages, materials and method you could use to teach children to use your own currency. 500 to 700 words. incl diagrams and activities. SECTION 8 Lesson 31 1. What are the ‘fine arts? ’ (200 words) 2. What fine work of literature would you enjoy reading to small children? (150 words) incl your own e. g. 3. How do you help the children to know and enjoy great work of art? ( 250 words) incl your own ideas 4.

Choose a poem for the children to recite and act, and give the reason for your selection. In your answer your selection must be applicable to the age group of 3 to 6 years. 5. What are Montessori’s beliefs on fantasy for children up to the age of 6? You will find your answer in your text books. Lesson 32 1. How does a Montessori child obtain good manual dexterity and understanding for drawing? (500 words) incl in your answer practical and sensorial exercises. 2. Give an example of an activity you would use to help the child’s power of observation. (250 words) use your own e. g. 3. Describe a group handicraft activity using the materials of your choice. Incl materials, presentation, aims and an e. g.

Bare in mind that your choice should allow the children to participate withut restrictions and with independence. Lesson 33 1. What is the 1st experience of rhythmic beat for the tiny baby? (30 to 50 words) 2. Which Montessori activity would help a child with Dyslexia, and why? (300 words) incl a brief description of Dyslexia. 3. Try to walk on a line carrying a pile of books. Walk carefully toe to heel and move rhythmically, if possible to music. Write a few lines about this experience. (100 words) 4. How does rhythm help a child who has great difficulty in spelling? (250 words) Lesson 34 1. Why did Dr. Montessori talk about ‘Cosmic Education? ’(1000 words) 2.

How would you help the children to adapt to the environment of their own day? (500 words) include the (Physical,spiritual,social and emotional) Lesson 35 1. On a scale of 1cm. to a year, make a time-line of your own life. Include some interesting points and highlights and visuals, if possible. Lesson 36 1. Give an idea of the materials for teaching your own religion or for the teaching of comparative religions. List at least 10 activities and explain each one with a short paragraph on the background of your religion. Lesson 37 1. What are the characteristics of a Montessori class? List 20 characteristics with an explanation for each one. 2.

What is the teacher’s relationship to the children in her class? (500 words) 3. How would you help the children towards becoming independent? (800 to 1000 words). Include all the areas of the Montessori classroom that you would like to prepare. 4. Describe the decor of a Montessori Include in your answer the outdoor and indoor, with an indoor floor plan. 5. What would be your main activities with the children during their first days at school? (250 words) Environment freedom, structure and order. reality and nature beauty and atmosphere, Montessori materials, development of community life Materials and exercises *The difficulty or the error that should be discovered by the child and an nderstanding should be isolated in every individual piece of material. The isolation makes the task easier for the child making it easy for him to figure the problem more readily. All Ebola rated one at a time not all at once. E. g. Variation in sizeColourNoise Design *the materials progress from simple to more complex design and usage. E. g. ;numerical rods ! st length 2nd numbers and length helping to understand simple addition and subtraction 3rd introduces writing numerical problems *the materials are designed to prepare the child indirectly for future learning. E. g. the indirect preparation for writing. Knob on materials to co ordinate thumb and motor action

Use of metal insets to guide movements with the ability to use a pencil Using fingers to trace of sandpaper letters helps develop a muscle memory of pattern to form letters. *the materials are concrete expressions of an idea and become more abstract. Helps the child grasp the abstract essence of the concrete material leaving the child independent without concrete evidence allowing for natural development. A solid wooden triangle is a good e. g. ;! st a solid wooden triangle is sensor ally explored. Then the separate base and sides are explored. Then dimensions are discovered. *control of error and auto education allows for the materials to be self correcting where a child can independently realize error without the help of an adult which allows the child to be in control. Teachers

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