Level of Socio-Economic Wellbeing of People
Reorganization revived inhabitants the right to build houses and live as legitimate member of the community. What particular socio-demographic characteristics they have, how households are distributed between and across communities, in terms of wealth index, and what patterns of household-level deprivations exit in all of these communities are the target of this research work. Findings show that wealth index varies within communities e. G. 67/1 slum is found as inhabiting largest poorest segment and 67/2 inhabiting largest richest segment of households. Household deprivations vary from 38 to 54 percent.
In overall, about 45 percent of the total population is excess population that shows that these slums are over populated. It has been found that demographic transition has already been started for these communities, therefore, poverty and household deprivations have implications for their future socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Excess population, bad management of solid waste disposal, and polluted water are other crucial issues that will ultimately challenge the future settlement conditions at each slum and have strong policy implications.
Introduction In Pakistan, the socio-economic data and research that are available reflect the rends that do not include community wise statistics/evidence. Policy making in Pakistan is unable to know what particular trends are undergoing in underdeveloped communities like slums in Islamabad. The people living in slums cannot be left blank in policy documents. This study makes efforts to formulate it convenient to know what particular trends these people have in terms of demographic dynamics, poverty (economic wellbeing), and deprivations (household level).
All these indicators are vital in terms of their specific place in the Millennium Development Goals. Evidence, all over the world, has proved hat communities with better socio-economic indicators have better performance in terms of education, health and wellbeing. Henceforth, this research is fostering to get the statistics/evidence that could be used to tell policy makers about majority of the people living in Islamabad slums about their socio-economic wellbeing.
Level of Socio-Economic Wellbeing of People Living in Slums of Islamabad By Romantically Islamabad was the first city in Pakistan during sass to be architecture according to the predefine Master Plan. The construction of a new city from scratch provided millions of Jobs for different workers. Most of them traveled from all parts of the country. The real impetus for the migration of workers from different parts of the country was the economic opportunities in the construction work.
Christians, now living in slums as a majority, were those who Jumped into the opportunity in the Capital Territory, even as street cleaners. Later, as the people from the Christian communities started to dwell, most of their relatives, friends, and family members started to migrate from the Punjab province to escape poverty, religious resistance and to enjoy extended work opportunities. This is evident from the report produced y Dawn (201 1), stating, Shade Amass is an office boy in Blue Area, Islamabad. He is one of the thousands that live in Islamabad ‘s slums. We have negligible facilities here, but my parents say that this is the best we have because we cannot go back,” said Amass. “We belong to Samurai, district Fusillades. My mother and father left when I was very young and came to this slum in 6-7,” On the broader framework, the people living in slums of Islamabad could be attributed as a ‘class’ because they all have the common social, economic, or educational status (Wright, 2003). Even their political status is common. According to the 1985 Catch Bead’s policy, eleven Catch Bead’s of Islamabad were those to be regularity.
Reorganization means relocation or up-gradation. During 1997, Federal cabinet 2 took notice of extending slums of Islamabad and advised CAD to take practical steps to solve the issue of slums. The slums that were inhabited on CAD designated residential or commercial areas were selected for relocation and those that were on revering annual like studied in this research were selected for up-gradation. Slums selected for up-gradation were given their right to exist and were ensured to given essential social services and commodities like housing, electricity, sewerage etc.
Scope of the study Scope of this study is limited to the socio-economic profiles of majority population living in CAD accredited slums. The study on Slums of Islamabad is first ever of its kind study that focuses to map out the socio-economic indicators. What particular trends have been there in terms of people’s socio-economic status and how households are divided in terms of poverty and household deprivations are the examples of many questions that would be answered by this study. Background (Literature Review)
According to the literature review, only two exclusive studies were done on the slums 1996 and the second was done by ‘Aztar Humid Khan Resource Center (CHAR)’ in 2008. The first study collected data on household and family planning indicators. In literature, this is the only study on the subject of these slums. While the second study examined the legislative and administrative issues pertaining to relocation, up- gradation and other issues that pertain to the shelter, housing rights and status of social amenities rights.
Arbitration is a continuous phenomenon and Pakistanis total urban population is about 37 percent and it’s growing annually at the rate of 3. 97 (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2010-11). The slums, the survey was completed in, are all officially recognized by the government. CAD has a fully functional department that takes care of the matters of the slums of Islamabad. After reorganization of the slums in Islamabad, there were many development initiatives in order to mechanize the life in these dwelling settings. People were allotted plots and were given loans on low interest rates to construct houses.
However, what were the official policies, how such they were implemented and what are their outcomes is beyond the scope of the thesis. 3 The average annual rate of change of urban percentage for Pakistan was 1. 20 during 2005-10 (I-IN-HABITAT, 2009) and total slum population of the Pakistan was estimated to be 47. 0 percent 1 of its total urban population (58487, 000) in 2007. The total slum population of the world was estimated to be 1 billion in 2006 and the current rates will make it double in 2030 (I-IN-HABITAT, 2003), unless tackled innovative.
According to the Global Urban Indicators (2009), the people living in slums of Islamabad have access to piped water (57. 7%), sewerage (82. 9%), telephone (61. 5%), and connectivity to electricity (99. 5%). These statistics are based on a survey done in 2006, UN- HABITAT used to report. According to the National Catch Bad Policy 2001, CAD developed modern urban shelter project. According to this project, most of the slums of the Islamabad were relocated to All Purr Farads where they were given their rights to own land and construct houses.
According to Dawn November 29, 2003, a demonstration was held by residents of modern urban shelter project for the implementation of National Catch Bad Policy and for the provision of basic amenities. Again in Jan 2012, Dawn reported a protest by the inhabitants for modern urban shelter project for the availability of basic amenities. Since the project by CAD was aimed to encourage most, if not all, to migrate to the All Purr Farads but the provision of better facilities and basic amenities might the core object in the way to move.
In order to ascertain the economic situation of the communities, the most fundamental issue remains the collection of expenditures data by Has for the calculation of income. Even that data are collected, still there are limitations and assumptions associated with the calculation of poverty lines (absolute or relative properties). Expenditures are mostly asked from one of the adult H member that may not be able to provide accurate information on the expenditures because other adult H members might have different income expenditure patterns.
Wealth Index, developed first time by She Oscar Ruttiest around 1996 (Ruttiest & Johnson, 2004) to proxy to the H expenditures data to measure the economic situations of Has. This percentage is estimated by UN by using the H data of Pakistan using four slum indicators (improved water, improved sanitation, durable housing and sufficient living area). 4 Different studies were done on slums of Karachi because slums in Karachi have the highest growth rate. Gag Khan University has the extensive work on reproductive health of women living in slums of Karachi.
In Islamabad, no any work has been found for Christians living in slums. This segment of population is a minority in Islamabad because the total population of these slums was only 1. 2 percent of the total population of Islamabad in 1998 (Islamabad Census Report, 2000). The productive behavior of monitoring might be different from that of mainstream population. Monitoring always try to enhance their participation by taking up the fertility flight with high altitude but this is an assumption. Theoretical connotation of the study Basic economic theory is the basis for the recent developments in the field of economics.
Since neoclassical theory better postulates the current economic development paradigms across the world, the work done under this study found a strong relation with the neoclassical theory by emerging the concept of utilities. The incept of utility varies by imposition of different subjects and their underlying theories. Utilities are the public services like water supply, electricity and transportation and in pure economic terms, these are the measures that have to be maximized in any situation involving choice (Worried Pro).
In this analysis, utility means the services and the customers’ choices (household belongings, e. G. ) that they perceive have to be maximized in any situation in order to maintain their ‘standard of living. ‘Standard of living has been used by Pig as synonymous to Welfare economics’ (Seen, 1939). This implies the link of this study to the theory of ‘Economic Welfare’ by Pig (1932) presented in his first published book in 1920 ‘The Economics of Welfare’.
Pig defined the ‘economic welfare’ as that part of the social welfare that can be brought directly or indirectly into relation with the measuring-rod of money (Pig, 1952: cited by Seen, 1984). This means that people who have money to ensure access to maximum utilities which they choose for themselves should have better ‘standard of living. This also leads to import basic concept of ‘social choice theory that says, in words of Mammary Seen (1977) that ‘social choice theory is unconcerned with relationship between individuals’ preferences and social choice.
As discussed above, the rationale for linking this study with the ‘neoclassical theory of economics’ is the implementation of this theory at (1999) puts on the theory of economic 5 development, linking the Robe Slows work, that by adhering to the law of diminishing returns and ‘assuming that saving patterns and fertility rates are the same across countries [communities] 2 , per capita incomes [income and/or saving] in poor countries [communities] should grow faster, and eventually living standards n all countries [communities] should converge’.
Different types of social sciences’ subjects emerged to a composite subject of development studies during the last phase of 20th century. This was due to the development of some new theories that better represent the human development out of context of traditional subjects of sociology and economics. This process was vice-versa. The most important work by Mammary Seen and other development theorists have recognized the theory of human development in the different perspective to social and economic theories. The most important is the Ken’s Capabilities’ Framework.
The debate on ‘Standards of Living has emerged as a measure of human development at individual and household level (Williams, 1987). Currently standards of living are used to measure the household level development in terms of durable household possessions. By taking a forward step, DISH Measure have used the advance statistical technique of Factor Analysis (Principal Component Analysis) to give weights to every durable possession of a household to categorize the household as poor or wealthy in an index called Wealth Index.
DISH Measure compared the findings of Wealth Index with the surveys that ere conducted across world to measure the poverty prevalence, both absolute and relative and found that Wealth Index is a better measure of poverty (Ruttiest & Johnson, 2004). Henceforth, Wealth Index has been in use as a proxy determinant of household poverty and the work on ‘Standards of Living ended in a proxy measure of poverty at household level. Townsend et al (1987) had first time developed a disadvantage and deprivation index that account for the four variables that deal with unemployment, non-home population, non-car population, and overcrowding.
Townsend deprivation index does not provide any link to human development to be used as an application to HID, however, Sinus (2008) have utilized some four broad variables to measure household level deprivations as an application to HID. The theory of Human Development as presented by HID has found some harsh criticism. First of all, 2 This is what I refer to the imposition of the macro explanation to the micro level I. E. From countries to communities as target population is divided into communities in itself and if they all are aggregated to be one community, their difference and imprison with other urban areas could be considered. It does not adhere to the Ken’s Capability Framework (Seen, 1984) that points to that term as well. Human capabilities mean that there should not be any political, ethnic, religious or any other type of imposition of rules that restrict rights and freedom of individuals. This is the debate by Seen (1984) where Piggy’s economic welfare has been given reconsidered adding freedom’ along with ‘opulence’ and ‘utility to measure ‘standard of living. During sass, United Nations Development Program (UNDO) first time published the findings of an index, called ‘Human
Development Index’ (HID) to list the countries of the world on HID scores. HID used the three main indicators to categorize countries: Gross Domestic Product (GAP); Life Expectancy; and Educational Attainment. Every indicator was given equal weight of 1/3. Since the deprivation by Townsend was unable to present the Human Development Applications, it was searched in the literature about household level deprivation measurements that could be implied as human development index’s applications.
The work for Humans (2008) was the only scientific paper that provided ere reviewed guidelines to measure household level deprivations on selected household level indicators to measure deprivation as an application of human development index. Research Questions Guided from literature review and theoretical discussion, the following research questions were devised to be investigated scientifically. 0 0 What are the ‘standards of living measured in terms of household belongings? What are the households level deprivation patterns prevailing in Christian households?
Objectives of the study 1 . What are demographic characteristics of Christians living in these slums? . Development of wealth index for Has/people living in slums. 3. Measurement of household deprivations for H/people living in slums. 7 4. To know distribution of households by wealth index and household deprivations inter and intra slums. Data and Methodology This study is totally a quantitative analysis of the data that is based on the random sampling of the households in each of the slums selected for the survey.
The listing of the households prepared by the Capital Development Authority (CAD) was obsolete; however, the maps prepared by CAD for each of these slums were acquired o look at the boundaries of the slums with the household identification numbers. The total numbers of households in a slum were taken from the map. The first household was selected randomly and then every next household was selected by a continuous interval. The universe of the research was all Christian Has that are located in four selected slums of Islamabad.
This study covers the four slums that are: Slum of 67/1; slum of 67/2; slum of IF/2 (also called 100 quarters); and slum of slums. The sample was the 50 Has from each of the slums. The selection of Has was based on the random probability criteria. All of these slums are populated on the banks of the annual and are congested by the irregular and bulk of Has. Sometimes, it was hard to find the H that was identified from the map. Each interviewer was given list of randomly selected Has after their two days participation in the training on the questionnaire.
It was ensured that each interviewer is at least holder of bachelor’s degree. The pre-coded questionnaires were entered in SOPS after labeling and coding was done. Some of the Has were revisited due to the lack of quality data in the first round. Wealth Index was developed by using Principal Component Analysis n SOPS 15. 0. Rest of all data analysis was done in STATS 11. 2. All statistics are weighted except statistics calculated for individual slums. Probability weights are calculated at H level and at population level.
H level weights are used for analyses of the file containing Has level data while roster level analyses were done using the population based probability weights. 8 Findings of the study Demographic transition in slums According to classical theory of demographic transition, there are four stages to a demographic transition (figure 1) to be completed in a population. It is found that people of slums, as a whole, are undergoing from a third phase of a demographic transition.