Leadership and People
Promoting Servant Leadership in the Youth Defining Leading and Leadership Leading is defined as: 1. Influencing others to take action toward specific goal. 2. Guiding and directing on a course, and as serving as a channel. A leader is someone who has commanding influence. Leadership is defined as: 1. It is the process of influencing and directing activities of members toward goal accomplishment. 2. It is about ordinary people who care. People who care enough to get extra ordinary things done. 3. It is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which inspire confidence. . It is simply not an art (emotional/instinctual) or a science (rational/acquired). It is a blend of the rational and emotional, the innate and acquired, the ideal and practical. (Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001)
Lecture 6 – Leadership Styles Let us compare leadership styles. We can do this best by contrasting two opposite styles of leadership: the authoritarian and the democratic (or participate) style. 1. The Authoritarian Style shows certain characteristics and we can sum them up by saying that leaders falling under this category: are generally strong-willed, domineering, and to some extent, aggressive. • must have their own way, which for them, seems the only way. • look upon subordinates more as functionaries than as persons, and the best subordinates, in their estimation, follow directions without question. • ordinarily are not ready to listen to views and suggestions of others (although they may pretend to), if they offer different opinions. • not encourage equal relationships (i. e. adult to adult with underlings. As a rule, they do not allow themselves to get close to employees.
They do not like to see employees get close to one another, for such cliques, as authoritarian leaders perceive them, might endanger their authority. • have business-like and task-oriented attitudes. The job comes first. • generally blame poor results on the inability of others to carry out instructions correctly. The following self-talk describes the attitudes of authoritarian leaders: I know best what is to be done here. After all, I am better trained, more experienced, and better informed on the matter than anyone else here. The others in the group expect as much of me.
This is after all, my job as their leader. Because I cannot do everything myself, I need their help, not their ideas and plans, to implement what needs to be done. I can take care of the thinking, and I do more than my share of the doing too, but I shall need their help here. I suppose I’ll have to listen to them. These days, they expect that much of me. But I don’t expect to hear anything new. I’m quite confident that we will end up doing it my way. Of course, I’ll handle the proceedings during the meeting and I’ll manage to control the pace of things as well.
After all, the agenda is mine and I’ve thought each point through already. I’ll also dispose of any disputes that may arise, since the task is the thing that counts, and we can’t be held up by any petty personal squabbles. That would be a sheer waste of time. Better that we all keep our feelings to ourselves anyway. As a member of this leader’s group, one might see things this way, whether one likes it or not: The leader is the real spokesman of the group. He usually does most of the talking and all of the actual planning and only wants our approval and cooperation. In fact, his credentials are good.
He does have more experience and competence than I have and he seems to have our best interests at heart. During the meetings, he doesn’t like to waste any time. While he’s not a very personable man, he’s always ready to help any of us, whatever the hour and however serious the problem. In one way, I’m happy that the leader takes all the responsibility of the group upon himself. That leaves me to do more or less what I want, just as long as I do the job he asks me to do. And he is generous with his praise of my work – I guess, because this reflects well on his leadership in the eyes of outsiders.
But at the same time and probably for the same reason, he comes down hard when we make mistakes or he feels that we have let him down. I sometimes resent being so uninvolved and feeling so unimportant. I would like to speak out and even disagree with the leader – for he is not right all the time, but I’m not sure how this would go over with the others in the group. While we spend a lot of time talking about the boss and his ways outside meetings, we tend to turn into lambs when he is around. I guess it is because we would not like to hurt and upset him. So things keep going on in the usual way. 2.
Democratic or Participative Style Characteristics of democratic leaders can be summed up in the following: • They are generally as concerned with maintaining group effectiveness as with completing the task to be done. • They encourage members in their groups to express their ideas and feelings, because they believe that such a climate leads to greater creativity and commitment. • If they encounter resistance or conflicts, they allow them to surface and they seek the help of their groups in removing the resistance or resolving the conflicts. • They encourage joint decision-making as well as shared goal-setting. They rarely set policies without explaining the reasons and proposing them to their groups, when they can, for suggestions and criticism. • They believe that responsibility for getting a job done depends as much on the group as upon themselves. They try to have this attitude shared by all group members. • They allow group members a good deal of freedom in their work, once they have shown their ability to do it. • They keep looking for better ways to do things and are open to change when convinced that such changes seem called for and would lead to greater effectiveness. • They believe in the effectiveness of group work.
They also believe that groups of committed individuals working together have greater potentials than when those same members work as individuals. When we characterize the attitudes of such leaders in the following bit of self-talk: I place a high value on sound and creative decisions that emerge from real understanding and searching within a group of committed people who take their life together seriously. I listen for, and try to elicit, ideas and opinions that differ from my own. I have clear convictions, but I am also open to change in the face of sound ideas and reasoning.
I realize that, however, competent and experienced I am, I may not have all the information needed, and definitely lack the experience of others in the group. I am always ready to learn. When conflicts arise in the group, I do my best, with the group’s help, to identify the issues involved and to uncover their resources. When aroused by someone or something, I try to contain myself and stay in touch with whatever might be going on inside of me. I try to maintain a sense of humor to keep things in perspective. I put a lot of energy into group work, because I firmly believe in the effectiveness of teamwork.
As a member of this leader’s group, one might see things this way: I find the other members of the group quite friendly and cooperative, including the leader of the group. We all seem to have a common stake in what we are doing and in the group we belong to. We have developed a true team spirit, along with initiative and creativity. We keep looking for new better ways and our leader encourages us to do so. As far as possible, we make decisions and set goals as a result of group consensus. We all share in the success or failure. In our working together, as a group, we have experienced a “circle of success” more than once.
That same group member might reflect on the circle of success this way: A shared commitment to the group and its task leads to – interdependent efforts from its members to find the best way to complete those tasks, which in turn lead to – a degree of shared success in achieving those targets, and this accomplishment leads to – confidence in the group’s potential and back to – renewed commitment to the group and to its ongoing tasks. You like the atmosphere, and you find your own role both interesting and rewarding. 3. Another type of leadership style is the laissez-faire. This is a leader in name only.
He fails to provide any direction for his group. Members are left the responsibility of leading and directing. (Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Lecture 7 – Indispensable Qualities of a Leader The following are the indispensable qualities of a leader: 1. Character – How a leader deals with circumstances of life tells you many things about his character. – Crisis does not make character, but it certainly reveals it. – It is more than talk. Anybody can say that he has integrity, but action is the real indicator of character. Your character determines who you are. – It is a choice.
It is said that talent is a gift but character is a matter of choice. – The beginning of character repair comes when your face your flaws, apologize and deal with the consequences of your action. 2. Charisma – Most people think of charisma as something mystical, almost undefinable. They think its’ a quality that comes at birth or not at all. But that’s not true. Charisma, plainly stated is the ability to draw people to you. And like other character traits, it can be developed. – In order to gain charisma, one should love life. People enjoy leaders who enjoy life. Think of the people you want to spend time with.
How would you describe them? They are celebrators and not complainers. They are passionate about life. If you want to attract people, you need to be like the people you enjoy being with. 3. Commitment – It separates the doers from the dreamers. If you to be an effective leader you have to be committed. True commitment inspires and attracts people. It shows them that you have conviction. They will believe in you only if you believe in your cause. – It starts in the heart. Most individuals want everything to be perfect before they are willing to commit themselves to anything.
But commitment comes before achievement. It is an antecedent. If you want to make a difference in other people’s lives as a leader, look into your heart to see if you are really committed. – It is one thing to talk about commitment. But it is another to do something about it. The only real measure of commitment is action. As quoted by Arthur Gordon: “Nothing is easier than saying words. Nothing is harder than living them day after day. ” 4. Competence – Responsible people show up when they are expected. But highly competent people take it a step farther. They don’t show up in body only.
They come ready to play everyday – despite of what they feel, what kind of circumstances they are in, or how difficult to expect the game to be. – Like Benjamin Franklin, All highly competent people continually search for ways to keep learning, growing, and improving. – Performing at high level of excellence is always a choice, an act of the will. As leaders, we expect our people to follow through when we hand them the ball. Constituents expects that and a whole lot more form their leaders. 5. Courage – It begins with an inward battle. Every test you face as a leader begins within you.
The test of courage is no different. As quoted by the psychotherapist Sheldon Kopp: “All the significant battles are waged within self. ” Courage is not the absence of fear. It is doing what you are afraid to do. It means letting go of the familiar and forging ahead into something new. 6. Passion – Researchers spend a lot of time trying to figure out what makes other people successful. They often consider a person’s credentials, intelligence, education, and other factors. But what goes beyond those is what we call passion. Your burning desire determines your destiny. Think of great leaders, and you will be struck by their passion: Gandhi for human rights, Winston Churchill for freedom, Martin Luther King Jr. for equality, Bill gates for technology. – Anyone who lives beyond an ordinary life has great desire. It’s true in an any field: weak desire brings weak results, just as a small fire creates little heat. The stronger your fire, the greater the desire – and the greater the potential. 7. Problem Solvers – Effective leaders always rise to a challenge. That is one thing that separates winners from winners. While others complain, leaders rise above predicaments with creativity and tenacity.
No matter what field a leader is in, he will face a problem. – Leaders with good problem-solving ability demonstrate five qualities. 1. They anticipate problems. Since problems are inevitable, good leaders anticipate them. Anyone who expects the road to be easy will continually find himself in trouble. 2. They accept the truth. People respond to problems in these ways: they refuse to accept them; they accept them and put up with them; or they accept them and try to make things better. Leaders must always do the latter. Effective leaders face up to the reality of the situation. 3. They see the big picture.
Leaders must continually see the big picture. They cannot afford to be overwhelmed by emotion. Nor can they allow themselves to get so bogged down in the details of the problems that they lose sight of what’s important. 4. They handle one thing at a time. Effective leaders never try to solve all the problems at once because they know it would be a ceaseless striving. If you are face with lots of problems, make sure you really solve the one you are working on before moving to the next one. 5. They don’t give up a major goal when they are down. Effective leaders understand the peak-to-peak principle.
They make major decisions when they are experiencing a positive swing in their leadership, not during the dark times. To improve your problem-solving skills, do the following: 1. Don’t avoid hassles/problems. If you have been avoiding them you’ll never have the opportunity to solve them. You’ll only get better if you gain experience dealing with them. 2. Develop a method. Some people have a hand time solving problems because they don’t know how to tackle them. Try using the TEACH process: T IME– spend time to discover the real issue. E XPOSURE– find out what others have done.
A SSISTANCE– have your team study all angles. C REATIVITY– brainstorm multiple solutions. H IT – implement the best solution. 8. Team Player – If you get along, they’ll go along. Leaders should have a contagious cheerful and positive disposition. They should be able to create an atmosphere of oneness. – According to Mr. John Maxwell, people don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care. It is true the ability to work with people and develop relationships is absolutely indispensable to effective leadership. People truly want to go along with people they get along with.
And while someone can have people skills and not to be a good leader, he cannot be a good leader without people skills. 1. Have a Leader’s Head – Understand people – The first quality of a relational leader is then ability to understand how people feel and think. As you work with others, recognize that all people, whether leaders or followers, have some things in common. – They like to feel special, so sincerely compliment them. – They want a better tomorrow, so show them hope. – They desire direction, so navigate them. – They want success so help them win. 2. Have a Leaders Heart – Love people According to the President and CEO of Difinitive Computer Services, Henry Gruland: “Being a leader is more than just wanting as lead. Leaders have empathy for others and a keen ability to find the best in people…not the worst…by truly caring for others. ” 3. Extend a Leader’s Hand – Help people – People respect a leader who keep their interest in mind. If your focus is on what you can put in at people rather than what you can get out of them, they will love and respect you – and these create a great foundation for building relationships. 9. Visionary – You can seize only what you can see. Vision is everything for a leader. Because vision leads the leader. It paints the target. It sparks and fuels the fire within. Show me a leader without a vision, and I’ll show you someone who is not going anywhere. – To get a handle on vision and how it comes to be a part of a good leader’s life, understand these things: 1. Vision starts within. If you lack vision, look inside yourself. Draw on your natural gifts and desires. Look to your calling if you have one. 2. Vision draws on your history. Vision is not some mystical quality that comes out of a vacuum as some people seem to believe.
It grows from a leader’s past and the history of the people around him. Talk to any leader, and you’re likely to discover key events in his past that were instrumental in the creation of his vision. 3. Vision meets other’s Needs. True vision is far-reaching. It goes beyond what one individual can accomplish. And it has real value, it does more than just include others; it adds value to them. 4. Vision helps you gather resources. One of the most valuable benefits of vision is that it acts like a magnet-attracting, challenging, and uniting people. It also rallies finances and other resources.
The greater the vision, the more winners it has the potential to attract. (Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Lecture 8 – Towards Transformational Leadership Society’s transformation requires transformational leadership (Stephen Covey, 1992), transforming people and organizations in a literal sense – to change them in mind and in heart, enlarge vision, insight, and understanding, clarify purposes, make behavior congruent with beliefs, principles, or values, and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating and momentum building.
Transformational leadership for Covey basically means that we change the realities of our particular world to more clearly conform to our values and ideals. It focuses on the “top line” and is principle-centered, thus it: – builds on man’s need for meaning – is preoccupied with purposes and values, morals and ethics – transcends daily affairs – is oriented toward meeting long term goals without compromising human values and principles – separates causes and symptoms and works at prevention – values profit as the basis of growth – is proactive, catalystic, and patient focuses more on mission and strategies for achieving them – makes full use of human resources – identifies and develops new talent – recognizes and rewards significant contributions – designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging – releases human potentials – models love – leads out in new directions – aligns internal structures and systems to reinforce over arching values and goals Leadership is the ability to influence others towards desired goals, but transformational leadership includes doing the right things.
The following virtues are considered as the foundation of transformational leadership: 1. Prudence – the habit which enables man to direct his actions to human life’s goals of knowing the right thing to do and applying it. 2. Justice – the habit of giving each one his due with constant and perpetual will; gives stability which man needs to work without fear and anxiety in the search for happiness. 3. Fortitude – the habit of overcoming the difficulties and pressures of life in the pursuit of good. 4. Temperance – the habit of bringing the desires and natural inclinations of man under the control of right reason. . Industry – the habit of working hard and working under pressure. 6. Loyalty – the habit of remaining true to your friends and to your principles (goals) inspite of difficulty. 7. Responsibility – the habit of being accountable for one’s actions, duties, obligations; readiness to answer to the consequences of our actions. 8. Cheerfulness – the habit of being optimistic, positive, always seeing the bright side of things. 9. Generosity – the habit of sharing the good that one has with other people; thinking first of the people around him and looking for ways he can help and serve them. 0. Magnanimity – the habit of having great ideals and ambitions of doing good; being concerned with doing great deeds of service to others by devoting his life to serve his country or to help people. Covey identifies the following characteristics of principled-centered leaders: 1. They are continually learning: – constantly educated by their experiences – read, seek learning, take classes, listen to others, learn through both their eyes and their ears – continually expand their competence and ability to do things – develop new skills, new interests make and keep promises or commitments – increase their personal worth as they elevate themselves to the next level of challenge and make their self-mastery grow 2. They are service-oriented: – see life as a mission not as a career – “yoke” up every morning, think of others and put on the harness of service in various stewardships – believe that the effort to become principled-centered without a load to carry simply will not succeed – have a sense of responsibility, of service, of contribution 3. They radiate positive energy: cheerful, pleasant, happy – attitude is optimistic, positive, upbeat, enthusiastic – spirit is hopeful, believing – have an energy field or an aura that charges or changes weaker, negative energy fields around them – attract and magnify smaller positive energy fields – tend to either neutralize or sidestep the negative energy they come into contact with – wisdom gives them a sense of ho strong the negative energy source is and a sense of humor and timing in dealing with it 4. They believe in other people: do not overreact to negative behaviors, criticism or human weaknesses – realize that behaviors and potentials are two different things; believes in the unseen potential of people – feel grateful for their blessings – don’t carry grudges – refuse to label other people, to stereotype, categorize and prejudge – seek the oak tree in the acorn and understand the process of helping the acorn to become a great oak – create a climate for growth and opportunity 5. They lead balance lives: – intellectually active, having many interests – healthy sense of humor, particularly laughing at themselves and not t other’s expense – open their communication, simple, direct, and non-manipulative – their actions and attitudes are proportionate to the situation-balanced, temperate, moderate, wise – live sensibly in the present, carefully planning the future and flexibly adapting changing circumstances – genuinely happy for other’s success and do not feel in any sense that these take anything from them – see success on the far side of failure; the only real failure for them is experience not learned from 6. They see life as an adventure: savor life because their security comes from within instead of from without – see old faces freshly, old scenes as if for the first time, rediscover people each time they meet them – like courageous explorers going on an expedition into unchartered territories – their security lies in their initiatives, resourcefulness, creativity, will power, courage, stamina, protection, and abundance of comfort zones in their home-camps – completely present when they listen – basically unflappable and capable of adopting virtually to anything that comes along 7. They are synergistic: as changed catalysts, they improve almost any situation they get into – in team endeavors they build on their strength and strive to complement their weakness with strength of others – in negotiating and communicating with others in seemingly adversarial situations, they learn to separate the people from the problem – focus on other person’s interests and concerns rather than fight over positions – together they arrive at sybergetic solutions, which are usually much better than any of the original proposals, as opposed to compromise solutions wherein both parties give and take a little . They exercise for self renewal: – regularly exercise the four dimensions of the human personality, physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual – exercise their minds through reading, creative problem-solving, writing, and visualizing – emotionally, they can make an effort to be patient, listen to others with genuine empathy, show unconditional love, accept responsibility for their own lives, make decisions, and reactions (Source: V. Gonzales, Values Integration and Promotion, 1997) Part IV – Volunteerism Lecture 9 – Serving Others: Volunteerism
Volunteerism is a cross-cutting social phenomenon that involves all groups in society and all aspects of human activity. Volunteer action directly contributes to economic growth, social welfare and protecting the environment. It also helps to build and/or consolidate social capital and to promote more participation and self-initiative, thereby, establishing or stabilizing democratic processes. Volunteerism opens wide doors of opportunities for other things. Serving others can lead an individual to new avenues which he can gain valuable experiences in life.
Through volunteer work, one can expand his horizon and learn how to live with other people and can even gain new friends. The experience of living in a new environment can make him more understanding and compassionate while at the same time learning new skills to develop his self-esteem and interpersonal skills. Opportunities abound for him to share his skills and resources, but so much more to share his hopes and dreams, and in the process, make other dreams come true. Serving others through volunteer work can challenge one to tap his resources, get in touch with his inner self and discover latent abilities he never thought he had.
Given the responsibilities of a volunteer, many people have discovered their deep sense of commitment and the heart to help others. Volunteerism recognizes the power of individuals driven by their commitment to make a difference wherever they are. (Source: VSO Leaflet) Part V – Life Skills Seminar 1 – Disaster Preparedness and Management Disaster management has a broad scope covering disaster preparedness, organization and training, construction of disaster reduction facilities, disaster response and rehabilitation, public information, and research and development.
Over the past few years, various emergencies services necessary during disaster have been developed in all the region and provinces. Designated organizations have been oriented in their various roles in the disaster management. Specialized skills in search and rescue, evacuation, disaster medicine, vulnerability analysis, damage assessment and first-aid have been widely undertaken. In 1995 alone, 159 training sessions on various aspects of disaster management have been conducted all over the country.
Organizations and training are continuing disaster preparedness tasks which are undertaken to equip staff in various government services agencies, including volunteers from private sectors who are engaged in disaster response. Recognizing the vital role of the youth in rescue, evacuation, emergency and relief services, they are also trained to have specialized skills in disaster response for future mobilization by the National Service Reserve Corps. (Source: NDCC; OCD) Seminar 2 – Basic First Aid Safety is an ongoing concern that must never leave your thoughts.
There is a primal instinct in many people to dash to the rescue of those in need. Basic first aid allows you to quickly determine a person’s physical condition and the correct course of treatment. Basic first aid refers to the initial process of assessing and addressing the needs of someone who has been injured or is in physiological distress due to choking, a heart attack, allergic reactions, drugs or alcohol or other medical emergencies. First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured casualty until definitive medical treatment can be accessed.
Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. (Source: Philippine National Red Cross) Part VI – Community-building: A Community Development Challenge Activity 9 – Story Telling Friendship Rainbow – Friendship Value Once upon a time the colors of the world started to quarrel. All claimed that they were the best. The most important. The most useful.
The favorite. Green said: “Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and of hope. I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Without me, all animals would die. Look over the countryside and you will see that I am in Majority. ” Blue interrupted: “You only think about the earth, but consider the sky and the sea. It is the water that is the basis of life and drawn up by the clouds from the deep sea. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. Without my peace, you would all be nothing. ” Yellow chuckled: “You are all so serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth into the world.
The sun is yellow, the moon is yellow, the stars are yellow. Every time you look at sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me there would be no fun. ” Orange started next to blow her trumpet: “I am the color of health and strength. I may be scarce, but I am precious for I serve the needs of human life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangoes, and papayas. I don’t hang around all the times, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you. “
Red could stand no longer he shouted out: “I am the ruler of all of you. I am blood – life’s blood! I am the color of danger and of bravery. I am willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire into the blood. Without me, the earth would be as empty as the moon. I am the color of passion and of love, the red rose, the poinsettia and the poppy. ” Purple rose up to his full height. He was very tall and spoke with great pomp: “I am the color of royalty and power. Kings, chiefs, and bishops have always chosen me for I am the sign of authority and wisdom. People do not question me.
They listen and obey. ” Finally Indigo spoke, much more quietly than all the others, but with just and as much determination: “Think of me. I am the color of silence. You hardly notice me, but without me you all become superficial. I represent thought and reflection, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace. ” And so the colors went on boasting, each convinced for his or her own superiority. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a startling flash of bright lightning, thunder rolled and boomed.
Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colors crouched down in fear, drawing to close to one another for comfort. In the midst of the clamor, Rain began to speak: “You foolish colors, fighting amongst yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Don’t you know that you were each made for a special purpose, unique and different? Join hands with one another and come to me. ” Doing as they were told, the colors united and join hands. The rain continued: “From now on, when it rains, each of you will stretch across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that you can all live in peace.
The Rainbow is a sign of hope for tomorrow. ” And so whenever a good rain washes the world, and a rainbow appears in the sky, let us remember to appreciate one another. Friendship is like a rainbow: Red like an apple, sweet to the core. Orange like a burning flame, never dying out. Yellow like the sun that brightens your day. Green like a plant that keeps on growing. Blue like the water that is so pure. Purple like a flower that is ready to bloom. Indigo like the dreams that fill your heart. Thank you for our friendship! Lecture 10 – Working Together through Community Development
An honest reflection on the many local and national issues that exist today can be intimidating, even discouraging. The present Filipino community is beset with problems such as low level of living, low level of productivity, poor marketing system, oppressive and teneurial arrangements and practices, unemployment and underemployment, limited genuine support facilities for socio-economic development, poor health condition, low level of education, cultures of silence and poverty, personalized policies and community disorganization.
These factors exist, and they play a part in shaping our society. But just as these limitations are facts of life, so too is our genuine concern to those in need. The ultimate goal of development is “to improve the quality of life. ” To achieve this goal of development, this requires an integrative process of mobilization and the raising of the consciousness of the people and the building of community organizations. The development process to be truly responsive, effective, equitable and sustainable, must be people-empowered, people-centered and towards community empowerment.
Such empowerment implies that the decision-making must be given to the people involved, thereby incorporating into the development process their own needs and values (Dr. Vivian Gonzales, VIP-CWS, Laguna: Sikap Strive Foundation, 1997). Through community development, the students together with the people in the community develop a common feeling of solidarity and become aware that they can achieve positive changes not only for themselves but also for their community. Lecture 11 – A Brief History of Community Development
Community development as a new discipline, grew out of an older concept – community organization. In the 1950’s a number of social scientists and educators formed the American Council on the Community, a relatively short-lived organization whose purpose was the institutionalization of scattered efforts throughout the United States to improve American community life. This effort was built on the experience acquired during World War II when millions of Americans participated in volunteer efforts and organized to deal with local problems.
This was the time when United Unions agencies and the technical assistance programs of the West sought to help the developing countries (Third World countries) move along the road to economic progress (modernization). Community development became one of the models (strategies) employed toward the transformation. The term received so much attention and recognition not only in the developing world but also in the US that it came to replace “community organization” even in the US.
Programs to help the impoverished areas of Appalachia or large metropolitan centers were legislated into existence and were labeled either as Community Development or Rural Development in the statutes. The essential feature was resource mobilization (people as well as material resources) at the community level so as to introduce a better quality of life. It included, among others, a new kind of stock taking by local residents, the use of outside consultants in interpreting the facts collected and in planning programs to meet the needs that were identified.
In the 1960’s over sixty countries either had well-formulated national community development programs or were in the process of bringing them into existence. Leaders of nations in Africa, Central, and South America, and Asia/Pacific after World War II faced tremendous tasks of nation building. This was due to the long periods of colonization under European nations faced with large-scale problems and relatively inadequate resource-utilization (low technical-know-how) national leaders embraced the idea of mobilizing local people carry out community projects.
The Community Development program of India, for example, was set up to aid the inhabitants of 558,000 villages attain a higher social and material level of well – being. Multi-purpose village level workers, especially trained for this new challenge, met with the village people, helped them to recognize and identify their needs and potentials and offered technical and moral assistance to meet their needs. The technical assistance was given by specialists in agriculture, animal husbandry, road building, irrigation, education, health and sanitation, rural cooperatives, etc. The basic unit was the block which comprised 100 villages.
Other countries, of course, worked out the kind of community development programs best fitted to their situation. The key common element to all countries was the thrust toward self-help and communal labor to undertake projects they considered important. Any compensation of labor was often channeled through the local community authorities by the external funding agencies so that other projects could be further financed (e. g. the “food-for-work” programs). These community development program were often fitted into national five-year to ten year plans to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to these efforts at the “grass-roots” level.
To many national leaders such programs seemed a way toward democratization and decentralization of the political process; they gave local people a feeling of being involved in nation-building and showed that the central government was actually beginning to show an interest in their welfare. In recent years, however, the central government is found wanting in this direction because the interest in this approach begins to wane due to greater focus being placed on urban development at the expense of rural development. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 12 – Definition of the Concept
There are many definitions of community development. The definitions vary according to type of agency, the setting, the method of operation and the purpose of the agency. Despite their differences, they share certain commonalities in their definitions. Thus, in defining the concept community development, these elements are evident: • a group of people; • residing in a community; • reaching a decision; • to initiate a social action process (planned intervention); • in order to have a desirable change in their social, economic, political, cultural, or environmental situation.
Community Development is a planned, organize and evolutionary process whereby a group of people with common aims, needs and aspirations come together to initiate social action in order to improve their social, economic, political, cultural, and environmental conditions. The term “community development” came into international usage to connote the processes by which the efforts of people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.
This complex of processes is made up of two essential elements: the participation of the people themselves in efforts to improve their level of living with as much reliance as possible on their own initiatives and the provision of technical and other services in ways which encourage initiative, self-help, and mutual help and make them more effective in programs designed to achieve a wide variety of specific improvements such as health, environmental conservation etc. This definition was coined by the United Nations. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998)
Lecture 13 – The Aims and Objectives of Community Development Aim, is a term that is simply defined as a “clearly directed purpose”. It is sometimes used interchangeably to mean objective or goal. In the context of Community Development, the words “aim” and “objectives” are not easy to defined. However the aim of community development is refer to a community action. This does not help much to understand without referring to the reality of community development practice. In reality the primary objective of community development is to promote, sustain, support and maintain community action.
Apparently, community development is related to community action, just as education, is related to learning. Hence, in promoting community development these must be some kind of community action to initiate or to guide the promoter to carry out either social or economic activities to improve their welfare or to solve their real problems. In order to arrive at a simpler understanding of the aims and objectives of community development, it may be worthwhile looking into the different types of community development and their respective objectives. Looking at each of them will underline both their differences and similarities.
From this standpoint, it may be possible to infer a general aim of community development through the synthesis of their common element. 1. Community Work Type This can be regarded as a professional approach to community development which has developed within the field of social work. It came into being in response to increasing demand for social services for the age, the sick, the unemployed etc. The objective of this type of community development work ahs been given as the, “giving of aid and support to people who need more control over their lives. ”
Examples: a. When members of a community offer voluntary services to a victim of say, typhoon, who lost his/her house. Oftentimes, other people in the community may offer temporary shelter, food, clothing etc. to the victims. This is typical norm of the Asian people, specially in rural areas. b. Community voluntary work in the community such as clearing, or weeding the local market or repairing the streets. 2. Colonial Social Development Type This type came into existence when many colonized nations in the Third World attained self – rule (independence).
The objective of colonial social development type was to integrate economic and social programs into education for self – management programs and for the development of the political structure in the newly independent nations. Examples: a. Rural Rice Milling Cooperatives. b. Rural Thrift and Savings Societies. c. Educational and Health programs. 3. Urban Renewal Types The purpose of urban renewal type is to break down social isolation and give more meaning to personal existence by encouraging the formation of social groups of different kinds which will organize own affairs. Example:
When urban squatters are re-settled, new residential associations are formed to undertake the provision of water, light, and sanitary facilities for their benefit. They are encouraged to undertake self-help projects to realize their own social activity goals. 4. Adult Education Types The aim of adult education type is to help in the identification and development of local leaders; to foster the concern life and enable communities to deal with existing problems. Example: The institution of skill training and livelihood development programs in order to produce people who will be more enterprising and entrepreneuring. . Institutional Type The objective is to encourage those who have been provided formal service, to take action on their own behalf and in addition, to accept responsibilities to render service to others. Example: Youth organizations provide social, recreational and cultural services for the community. 6. The Idealist / Political Activist Types It aims at giving practical expression to social justice through militant action in order to see beneficial change for the participants within the shortest possible time. 7. The Community Development Type This is known the “kampong-based” type.
The aim is towards the development of the potential of individual members of the target group. It stresses on self-reliance and participation to bring about desirable socioeconomic transformations. It also stresses on cultural exchange between Kampong in other countries to stimulate globalization. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 14 – The Major Purposes of Community Development The overall purpose of community development is to help people employ the rights methods to organize self-help initiatives and to develop techniques relevant to their own situation for socio-economic and cultural progress.
Specifically, community development: 1. Is designed to meet the learning needs of significant groups in the community e. g. community leaders or civic or special interest organizations. 2. Enhance the ability of groups of individuals so that they can work collectively to attain community social and economic goals. 3. Teaches about matters relating to community or region, generally associated with social structures and public as well as private and voluntary enterprises. 4. Emphasis on shaping infrastructure and social organizational support through involvement in the legislative, including formal financial and business enterprises. Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 15 – Basic Stages in the Community Development Process A process is something which has a beginning and an end, and it happens over time. In the community development process, certain distinct stages are essential for its promotion. There are various listings of stages or steps in literature on community development. But I shall somehow oversimplify it here. 1. The Problem Situation A situation may exist in a community which represents a need, a problem, an opportunity, or a challenge to a community group, or to the entire community.
Usually it would be tackled as a community project. 1. The Will To Do Through discussion, diffusion of ideas and with information input, the group involved may reach a point where it is beginning to form a will to do something about it. 2. Organizing Some form of organization is established with a certain amount of commitment from individuals to some in-depth and specific thinking about the project. 3. Getting to the People At this stage, the process moves to the general membership of the community. Information is diffused and educational work is undertaken community-wide. The potential exists for conflict.
Considerable discussion, and expression of viewpoints. General goals may become clear and some commitments may be made. 4. The Planning Process If the project is blessed by legitimizers, the planning process will begin. The definition of objectives, availability of options or alternatives, and availability of resources may be assessed. The end result may be a plan to approach the project with specific information. 5. Execution Phase Initiation of the projects is often an occasion to build community spirit and identity and to cement commitment depending on the project, it is often an important occasion in the community. . Evaluation Evaluation is an on – going process (monitoring) but the final assessment is undertaken upon completion of the project. Community members try to review their experience for strength and weaknesses. The experience gained may be used in future community development projects. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Part VII. Understanding Community Organizing Lecture 16 – Defining Community Organizing Community Organizing (CO), as commonly used has already joined the “wagon of over-used” words both in the academic and non-academic circles.
Every agency or organization has its own interpretation of things around its own interpretation of things around it and therefore it must be no surprise that CO, like other terms, has different definitions depending on who, where and for what. It is popularly used among development practitioners, social workers, health workers, agriculturists, forest workers, teacher and even students. There are those who use CO to promote en environmental protection while there are those who use environmental protection promotes community organizing.
Some say that CO is building organizations, other say it is just one of the aims of CO. some practitioners say that tantamount to doing community development. Community organizing is not just physically gathering and organizing people so that they can collectively participate in solving problems. CO is more a process of community-based decision-making involving the intervention of a change agent particularly regarding the exploitation of community-based resources. As Paulo Freire noted in his participatory approach research, “Man is being who exist in and with the world.
To exist is thus a mode of life which is proper to the being who is capable of producing, of deciding, of creating and communicating himself. ” Let us now look at several definitions of community organizing: It is the process of bringing about and maintaining adjustment between the social welfare needs and resources in a geographical area or special field of service. This means that a community needs to be aware that their needs can be responded by what the community’s physical boundaries. Adjustment of these needs with the available resources will require: ) Identifying what resources are exploitable; b) Planning on how to tap, use and re-use them; c) Employing environmentally safe appropriate technology; and d) Promoting collective human action in the resource management/maintenance. That is, in the essence, organizing the people for a common purpose/goal. According to the Philippines Business for Social Progress (PBSP), “CO is a systematic, planned and liberating change process of transforming a complacent, deprived malfunctioning community into conscious, empowered, self-reliant and just humane entity and institution”.
This means, the community as a social unit, needs to learn so that they become empowered to address problems confronting them. CO is a process forged along people’s empowerment and the eventual formation of a self-reliant organization that will facilitate development in a sustainable manner. Apart from the above definitions, I would like to re-visit the concern that has been expressed for sometime now on the misuse and abuse of the concept of CO. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 17 – The Concept of Community Organizing 1. Of Means and Ends (Process and Result)
As a process, CO is a series of interrelated activities with the aim of unifying the people into an organization process, characterized by people’s participation in all aspect or stages of the organizing process. CO is a complex process that goes beyond the mere setting up of a formal organization. It is a process which ultimately influences the patterns of relationships in the community through the development and maintenance of a normative system. Such norms are expected to affect the values, belief, attitudes and aspiration of the people in the community.
As a radical approach in bringing development to the community. Being radical, CO employs coercion, advocacy and even threat to uproot the causes of social injustice in the development of the people. Although CO starts by addressing small and simple issues which the people can immediately act on or solve, its main focus is to dig into the root cause of the problems. As a result of the organizing process, CO refers to the resulting entity, which is the legitimate and real organization of the people.
It becomes the real manifestations of the people’s collective wills to be able to participate, voice out and be heard and also to act and decide as unified body (group). The resulting organization mirrors the people’s interests, sentiments and aspiration. Does the end always justify the means? There is, without a flaw, the perennial question about the ethical considerations of the irreverent attitude and the unconventional methods that effective COs have employed in their practice. But Alinsky resorted thus:
Conscience is the virtue of observations and not of agent of action; in action, one does not always enjoy the luxury of a decision that is consistent both with one’s individual conscience and good of mankind; action is for mass salvation and not for individual’s personal salvation – particularly in the midst of society’s innate hypocrisy, its contradictions and apparent failure of almost every facet of our social and political life. 2. Of Power By giving power to the people we bring about “the future secured in the people’s hands”.
Power is the basic element in the community organizing process. People’s power in CO is not based on material wealth in status in society. A powerful people’s organization (PO) is, therefore, an important means to find redress for their grievances and act against those conditions that appear and dehumanize them. People’s empowerment is making the people more assertive and advocative to face and fight human rights violations and exploitations. It is a process involving the recognizing and building upon innate capacity.
It is not a program or activity but a process of enabling people, especially the weak, the poor, the unorganized, the illiterate, the oppressed to learn to surmount their powerlessness and to try to develop their God-given capacity to reach their in-born potential. Becoming vocal, they may be guaranteed basic freedom, opportunities and self-governance at the grassroots level. 3. Of Conflict (And Controversy) In CO, dissatisfaction or discontent (discontentment) is viewed as a positive ingredient that nourishes the enlightenment and development of a community.
This is because it motivates people to come together and discuss and determined to solve problems affecting them. CO sees confrontation as a necessary and useful tool in solving social injustice. Change is part of human life and conflict (or friction) indispensable in social change. To live is to change. Change and conflict are fraternal twins in societal change. One functional aspect of conflict is that it leads to a search for solutions. It is an instrumental for innovative change.
It also helps to release the latent socio-psychological frustration. 4. Of Praxis (Theory and Practice/Reflection and Action) By a praxis here, it means that theory and practice o0f community organizing. In the day-to-day community improvement or organizing work, it is difficult to identify or separate the theory from the practice. Theory and practices should be so inter-woven and complementary, each testing and strengthening the other. It also refers to reflection and action. 5. Of Conscientization (Critical Awakening)
Conscientization refers to the process in which men (humans) are not recipients, but as knowing subjects, achieve deepening awareness both of the socio-cultural reality which shapes their lives and their capacity to transform that reality (Paulo Freire; 1972). Conscientization involves reflection and action occurring simultaneously in the process of organizing wherein critical reflection becomes form of action. Features of Conscientization: 1. It is people’s organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized. . It mirrors and unmasks the different aspects (realities) of the system so that the people see them for what they are. 3. It changes attempts by elites to petrify (solidify) the culture of poverty and galvanize (electrifies) within people the spirit of critical awareness and mass protest. At the same time, it promotes the spirit of cooperation, unity and sincerity among the people to fight against the individualistic, competitive, exploitation and selfish characteristics of the elites. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998)
Lecture 18 – Goals of Community Organizing Community organizing aims at achieving the following broad goals: 1. People’s Empowerment CO helps the community to become better equipped with appropriate skills, ethics to assert and advocate for their rights, towards social equity, fairness and human dignity. 2. Building Organization The organizing process brings into being relatively permanent structures that can better serve the needs and aspirations of the community. A viable, self- reliant and grassroots-managed organization (PO) is one of the aims of CO. hrough formal or non-formal set-ups or structures, the community acquires the skills of community management. 3. Building Alliances Community organizing aims to give the people, skills in intra and inter organizational management and processes through group linkages and networking among the various groups in the community. 4. Popular Democracy Popular democracy entails such attributes as consensus-building in decision-making, planning and participation in community projects. It gives rise to “one man one vote” system, freedom of speech and freedom of religion, among others. . Social Transformation CO seeks to change the life of a community and the whole society into a democratic, nationalistic, self-reliant and self-governing entity. An entity to address the needs of individual members as well as community-based concerns such as environmental degradation. 6. Development of Local Leaders It aims to identify local leaders and equip them with the necessary skills to better serve their people. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 19 – The Guiding Principles of Community Organizing
CO like other concepts, has set of principles to guide the practice. It is people’s organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized: Go to the people. Live among them. Learn from them. Plan with them. Work with them. Start with what they know. Build on what they have. Teach by showing. Learn by doing. Not by showcase, but a pattern. Not odds and ends, but a system. Not piecemeal, but an integrated approach. Not to conform, but to transform. Not relief, but release. Go to the people and live among the people.
Learn the culture of the people and try to integrate into the culture. Learn, plan and work with the people. The people are highly knowledgeable about the local situation so the community organizer must avail of this opportunity. Start from where the people are in their development. There must be a proportionate blend between top-down and bottom-up technologies in order to tap the indigenous resources in the community. Teach by learning first from the people. The community organizer must realize that local or indigenous knowledge is not inferior to Western or scientific knowledge.
Respecting the people’s knowledge will encourage them to learn other skills to complement what they already know. Integrative and holistic approach. The community organizing must focus on the interdependency and the interrelatedness of the factors needed to transform the situation of the people for the better. Cumulative and continuous. CO is not one time great even but grows gradually without break until specific problems are addressed and phased-out. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998)