As far as disciplines are concerned in such a vast scientific world that people circulate in, when psychology was conceived and eventually became a separate field of concentration, it has become perhaps one of the most popular courses and career any individual would want to venture in. The main concerns however are left for aficionados to speculate that the study of human behavior, its scientific explorations on the human mind and its mental processes is also a very complex and quite difficult arena (Papalia et al, 2002).
There are theories and theorists that abound to posit on the description, explanation or understanding and prediction (and if possible, modification or control) of behavior among human organisms. Despite the modern breakthroughs, there lies a tension between what has been known and what are still unknown on the creature called man (Bernstein, 1991). This paper is anchored on the understanding that psychology actually pertains to the human psyche which is the equivalent of the soul and/or spirit where insights, knowledge and understanding reside.
Where this is the central issue, spirituality similarly is attracted to the human mind where the attention that much of the Christian doctrine is also supposed to attend to or has been prepared to change. Baumrind’s theory of parenting styles Introduction Diana Baumrind developed a very widely known theory of parenting which created a great impact on the idea of parenting styles that most parents adhere to and follow today. The concept of main concepts include the authoritative, permissive and authoritarian models (Atkinson et al, 1993).
The main idea concerns these styles and their impact on the resulting developing person. It is considered influential because it is perhaps the easiest to remember and where most parents or adults readily relate to in most cases (Morgan, 1977). The theory indeed has inspired a lot of consequent studies especially the implied and emphasized acceptance of the superiority of the authoritative model over and against the rest of the other styles.
In a sense, Baumrind and her theory or studies convey the clear message that there is such a correct way of rearing children and this she mentioned as the authoritative way (Thomson, 2005). Critiques of course abound as to the validity and applicability of her theory at all times or in all set-ups or situations. The studies many argue had only been correlation which means that there is no such direct “cause and effect” as one would have wanted to appear (Papalia et al, 2002, p. 301). Implications to Counseling
Counseling in this perspective would imply that the counselor adhere to Baumrind’s understanding that there is the right way of bringing up children (Baumrind, 1959). However, as studies also reveal, parents never behave as consistently as they should as they relate with their children in all aspects of their lives (Baumrind, 1971). Here is the complication here. Counseling then, would serve as guidance to parents and would-be parents as to what would emerge as more successful parenting by introducing and comparing the different parenting styles.
Despite the fact that what was employed was correlational type of research methodology does not mean that the results have become altogether invalid or insignificant. It means that for most of those who advocate the authoritative style, children have emerged as more adjusted and more capable of getting into different stresses that life in reality has to offer (Bootzin, 1991). Implications to Culture Culture is of course influenced to the degree that people inhabiting certain localities or communities believe on the Baumrind model.
It means that parents and adults who are primary caregivers adjust to the authoritative standpoint for a society to make a better chance of surviving and minimizing the chaos that people bring on themselves by virtue of living in a dysfunctional world (Baumrind, 1975; Bernstein, 1991). Culture then must give in to the idea that even if parents come from different ethnic groups or race, that does not deter them to adopt the “right” way of bringing up or rearing children. Implications to the Biblical worldview The Judeo-Christian worldview is definitely perhaps the primary reason that these styles have emerged.
The backdrop of the styles mimic with the typical home where the bible and its influence may be peculiarly absent or obviously the hub from which the family must revolve around. The authoritarian is by and large a translation of the Judeo-Christian worldview of bringing up children and way of raising a family where cooperation is not taken for granted. It goes to show also that the Bible or Scriptures must take the front seat in all endeavors and decision-making processes. Conclusion Many get their inspiration for adopting their way of raising their family based on the Baumrind model.
Indeed, it has been effective to a degree because it can easily be remembered and understood. Usually, anyone coming from a background of any of the styles can immediately relate. Eph 6:1 admonishes children: “Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right, and reinforced in Col 3:20, “Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing unto the Lord” (KJV). Another is found in Proverbs 4:1, “Hear, my children, the instruction of a father, and give attention to know understanding” (NKJV).
The parents then must see to it that the guidance must be contained in the context of the Christian home. Again, though, these must be taken in the context of the Scriptural admonition that wisdom comes from God through His Word. The day to day efforts and energies expended on raising children in the context of the Christian household entail more than an accumulation of experiences and knowledge. It takes the wisdom that God through His Spirit infuses as the parent or guardian waits upon in meditation and in submission to God and His word. References 1. Atkinson, R. L. , R. C. Atkinson, E.
E. Smith, D. J. Bem, and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1993. Introduction to Psychology, 13th ed. New York: Harcourt College Publishers. 2. Baumrind, Diana. 1959. Conceptual issues involved in evaluating improvement due to psychotherapy. Psychiatry, 22, 341-348. 3. Baumrind, Diana. 1975. The contributions of the family to the development of competence in children. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 12-37. 4. Baumrind, Diana, 1971. Harmonious parents and their preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), 99-102. 5. Bernstein, D. A. , E. J. Roy, T. K. Srull, and C. D. Wickens, 1991. Psychology.
New Jersey: Houghton Mifflin Company. 6. Bootzin, R. R. 1991. Psychology. New York: Gilford Press. 7. Morgan, Clifford T. 1977. A Brief Introduction to Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 8. Papalia, Diane E. , S. W. Olds. , RD Feldman. 2002. Human Development. 8th Ed. , International Edition. McGraw-Hill. 9. Thompson, Ross A. “Child Development. ” Microsoft® Encarta® 2006 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005. 10. The Holy Bible. 2001. New King James Version. Power BibleCD Online Publishing, Inc. 127 N. Matteson Street PO Box 21, Bronson, MI 49028
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