I will pay for the following essay History of Intellectual Disability. The essay is to be 4 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.
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Illness and pathology are not the same as disability. Verbrugge and Jette (1994) define disability as “a gap between personal capability and environmental demand” (p. 1). In contrast, they define pathology as “biochemical and physiological abnormalities” (p. 3). Illness or pathology alone is not necessarily sufficient to yield disability (e.g., Glass, 1998. Institute f Medicine, 1991. Nagi, 1965. Verbrugge &. Jette, 1994). Instead, researchers describe the disablement process as a phenomenon that can be described by several steps or concepts (Lawrence &. Jette, 1996. Verbrugge &. Jette, 1994). Verbrugge and Jette’s (1994) model includes the following: (a) pathology, (b) impairments (i.e., dysfunctions and structural abnormalities in body systems), (c) functional limitations (i.e., restrictions in fundamental physical actions and basic psychological processes), and (d) disability (i.e., difficulty performing activities in a domain f life typical for one’s reference group).
The process by which a person becomes disabled (or “handicapped,” depending on the model) can be characterized as a set f interactions between dysfunction at any f these levels f phenomena and psychological and environmental factors. For example, the degree to which older individuals with osteoarthritis f the hands are disabled (i.e., have difficulty in normal activities and roles) will depend on a number f factors: the nature and efficacy f medical interventions, the availability f environmental supports, changes in activities and lifestyle, environmental demands, and psychological resources.
In this article, we examine the roles f several psychological characteristics that may serve as protective (or, conversely, risk) factors in the disablement process. Verbrugge and Jette (1994) have suggested that, given some pathology (i.e., disease, injury, or developmental condition), pre-existing psychological characteristics may affect the likelihood f impairment or functional limitations. Evidence also suggests that psychological characteristics can affect the likelihood f pathology itself.
There are a number f mechanisms by which psychological resources might affect the disablement process. One useful perspective, derived from the Verbrugge and Jette (1994) model, was suggested by Femia, Zarit, and Johansson (1997). They suggested that psychological, or “internal,” resources “can strongly influence the relationship between personal capability and environmental demand by either increasing personal capability, reducing the environmental demand, or both” (p. P13). There are a number f ways in which psychological resources might help increase personal capability. They may serve as motivational factors for engaging in health- or rehabilitation-related behaviours, or they may enable people to engage in more adaptive coping strategies.
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