HIV/AIDS, Its Statistics and Health Disparities

Prominent Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Immune System Destruction

In the 1980s, when the first epidemic of HIV erupted, a positive test result implied an immediate death sentence (Worobey et al., 2016). In the 21st century, the situation has slightly changed, with innovative solutions for slowing down the effects of the disease, have emerged, yet the battle against HIV/AIDS is far from being over. Since the lack of awareness remains the primary factor for spreading HIV/AIDS among vulnerable demographics, programs aimed at raising awareness should be deemed as the key to the management of the problem.

By definition, HIV/AIDS is a disease that leads to a gradual yet irreversible drop in the efficacy of one’s immune system and the following development of multiple health complications that eventually lead to death (“About HIV/AIDS,” 2017). The HIV virus attacks and destroys CD4 cells, or glycoprotein, that sends signals to CD8 cells to activate the immune system (Serrano-Villar et al., 2104). As a result, a person infected with HIV becomes especially vulnerable to opportunistic diseases and various types of cancer (“About HIV/AIDS,” 2017).

Current Data and Statistics: HIV/AIDS in the 21st Century

Despite the efforts of healthcare organizations worldwide, HIV/AIDS remains incurable. As a result, even with the active promotion of health campaigns and other awareness-raising activities, HIV/AIDS remains one of the essential factors increasing mortality rates worldwide (“The global HIV/AIDS epidemic,” 2017). According to the UNAIDS official statistics, in 2016, 36.7 million people had AIDS (“Fact sheet – Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic,” 2017).

Moreover, 1.8 million new infections were registered in 2016 (“Fact sheet – Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic,” 2017). Although cancer is typical in HIV/AIDS patients as a result of the immune system failure, tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death (one in three cases). Although the percentage of deaths caused by AIDS has been reduced by 48% since 2005, the disease remains a consistent threat to the well-being of the global community (“Fact sheet – Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic,” 2017).

Health Disparities Related to the Issue

In the early 1980s, the start of the epidemics was witnessed in the LGBT community, which was later on attributed to the propensity toward unprotected sex among LGBT people (Worobey et al., 2016). However, since a significant number of people persist in their prejudices against the LGBT community, moralizing HIV/AIDS becomes very easy, hence the increase in stigmatizing vulnerable demographics (Logie et al., 2017). As a result, the members of the LGBT community suffer significantly from health disparities regarding HIV/AIDS (Logie et al., 2017).

Prevention Strategies: What Can Be Done to Avoid the Disease

Traditional: Antiretroviral

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) such as abacavir (Ziagen), didanosine (Videx), etc., are used to prevent an HIV virus to make copies of itself. Similarly, Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) such as efavirenz (Sustiva) and Protease Inhibitors (PIs) such as atazanavir (Reyataz) are used for the same purpose. Fusion Inhibitors (e.g., enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)) do not allow HIV to enter CD4 cells. CCR5 Antagonists, Integrase Inhibitors, and Pharmacokinetic Enhancers are also used to prevent the HIV virus from spreading further and affecting a patient (Ghosh, Osswald, & Prato, 2016).

Complementary and Alternative

Apart from traditional tools for managing HIV/AIDS patients’ well-being, complementary and alternative techniques can be used. These include the use of relaxation techniques, body therapies, and consumption of herbal medications (“Alternative (complementary) therapies for HIV/AIDS: Entire lesson,” 2016). While the specified techniques do not allow reducing the impact of HIV on one’s immune system, they serve as the strategies for relieving stress and preventing the development of depression, which is a major threat to HIV/AIDS patients’ health (Earnshaw, Smith, Cunningham, & Copenhaver, 2015).

Pathophysiologic Effects of Stress: Analysis

Because of the stigma associated with AIDS and the absence of opportunities for being eventually cured, HIV/AIDS patients are prone to stress and depression. Oxidative stress is typically viewed as one of the key effects of the psychological pressure that HIV/AIDS patients experience (Sharma, 2014). Studies show that oxidative stress may reduce the chances for successful management of HIV/AIDS by enhancing viral replication and even causing cognitive impairment (Earnshaw, Lang, Lippitt, Jin, & Chaudoir, 2015). Thus, psychological interventions are also required for HIV/AIDS patients to develop coping mechanisms (Earnshaw et al., 2015).

Evidence-Based Stress Management Interventions

To help patients reduce the amount of pressure that they experience, one should consider enhancing social support that patients will receive from community members. The specified objective can be attained by designing a program for raising awareness among target demographics. For instance, social networks such as Facebook and Twitter can be used to encourage community members to abandon myths and prejudices against HIV/AIDS patients and encourage communication between the vulnerable population and the community. Furthermore, counseling services must be provided to patients with HIV/AIDS to give the latter the sense of security that they will require to develop confidence and fight psychological pressure. As a result, the instances of depression and similar mental disorders caused by stress can be avoided successfully.

References

(2017). Web.

(2016). Web.

Earnshaw, V. A., Smith, L. R., Cunningham, C. O., & Copenhaver, M. M. (2015). Intersectionality of internalized HIV stigma and internalized substance use stigma: Implications for depressive symptoms. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(8), 1083-1089. Web.

Earnshaw, V. A., Lang, S. M., Lippitt, M., Jin, H., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2015). HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: Do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources? AIDS and Behavior, 19(1), 41-49. Web.

(2017). Web.

Ghosh, A. K., Osswald, H. L., & Prato, G. (2016). Recent progress in the development of HIV-1 protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 59(11), 5172-5208. Web.

(2017). Web.

Logie, C. H., Lacombe‐Duncan, A., Brien, N., Jones, N., Lee‐Foon, N., Levermore, K., … Newman, P. A. (2017). Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: A qualitative study. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20(1), 21385. Web.

Serrano-Villar, S., Sainz, T., Lee, S. A., Hunt, P. W., Sinclair, E., Shacklett, B. L., …Van Natta, M. L. (2014). HIV-infected individuals with low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective antiretroviral therapy exhibit altered T cell subsets, heightened CD8+ T cell activation, and increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. PLoS Pathogens, 10(5), e1004078. Web.

Worobey, M., Watts, T. D., McKay, R. A., Suchard, M. A., Granade, T., Teuwen, D. E., … Jaffe, H. W. (2016). 1970s and ‘Patient 0’HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America. Nature, 539(7627), 98-101. Web.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with My Homework Geeks
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

escort

-
eskişehir escort

escort

-
eskişehir escort
Live ChatWhatsApp

escort

-
eskişehir escort