Discuss theories of Communication
Communication is when you are trying to get a message across in a way to suit the other person’s needs in terms of decoding and understanding and then a response. Communication is a two way process. Michael Argyle (1972) compared interpersonal communication to learning how to drive in order to explain his theory. This is because; he claimed we use the similar skills to drive in terms of listening, observing and reflecting. Argyle stressed the importance of feedback within skilled activities. For example when we are driving our actions are responses to what is happening on the road.
We are constantly in this cycle where we are using the skills of reflecting and observing. Therefore skilled interpersonal interaction also uses a cycle where we have to decode what others have said to understand it and adapt to give a response. Although the decoding occurs subconsciously we hardly know we are doing it. Argyle believed we need to build an understanding of; listening, observing and reflecting to what others are saying for to take place. The stages of the communication cycle are:
The scenario in which this communication cycle is going to take place is between a social worker and service user. The social worker talks to her boss and voices her suspicions for the child. Her concern is that the child is being physically abused. This can be helpful when taking to someone whose spouse has died as you need to show empathy and show you`re listening. This is the communication cycle being used as then the councillor or health profession can help her to open up by reflecting on what she has said. If this was not the case then the conversation would come to a stop.
Stretch, B and Whitehouse M (2010) Health and Social Care Book 1 level 3. Essex: CM20 2JE Tuckman`s theory is used to explain group formation, he believed there are 4 stages; forming, storming, norming and performing. These are the stages that are used for effective communication. The first stage forming is when people meet for the first time. The individual roles and responsibilities are not clear at this point as they are acknowledging the purpose of the group. The second stage storming is the tension of how to start as they compete with each other. Norming is when the group start to agree with each other.
Everyone is given a roles and responsibilities which everyone accepts. They then plan on methodologies and processes. The leader enables the group to socialise in order to work better. Lastly performing is when they have recognized the common expectations and values, the group reach the fourth stage of being a successful performing group. Any disagreements are sorted out within the group. Tuckman’s later added another stage called adjourning. This is when the aims and goals are achieved and completed which then leads to the group breaking up as the project comes to an end.
The scenario is a team meeting: The thoughts and actions that occur through the stages are as follows: 1. Forming – uncertainty about the individuals within the group meeting. E. g. this is when people work independently. They spend time collecting information planning. Each person does not know or understand why others are there. Professionals may think that they are the most important person in the care of the client. 2. Storming – leadership is considered by individuals e. g. will it work best? E. g. this is when it’s important and depends on the group whether it will work or not.
Arguments can occur due to the lack of trust. Members of the group will not share resources with each other. Members of the group feel they need to lead the group. If there is no group leader then things could become fragmented. 3. Norming – changing perceptions of pre-conceived ideas of someone within the group e. g. He`s not that bad? E. g. changing ideas for the success of the whole team. All the group members will by now settle down into the group. Trust will be built. Each group member will understand the others work within the group.
Resources could be started to be shared. This will stop any duplication been done by other group members. 4. Performing – interacting and becoming an effective leader. E. g. you are able to handle making decisions and being a motivated leader. As a group they are then able to work effectively as one. Each member will by now trust and appreciate the work of their colleagues. The collaboration of the group works. All the group members are working for the good of the client. Stretch, B and Whitehouse, M (2010) Health and Social Care: Book 2 Essex