It must be clear however, that these preferences are not absolute manners of helping learners achieve their learning goals (Sternberg, 1986). Educators need to assist learners examine their learning preferences and expand or modify them when necessary (Sternberg, 1986). The interactions between learner differences, curricular and environmental conditions are other key factors affecting learning outcomes (Sternberg, 1986). Educators need to be sensitive to individual differences, in general (Sternberg, 1986).
They also need to pay attention to learner perceptions of the degree to which these differences are accepted and adapted to by varying instructional methods and materials (Sternberg, 1986). In the like manner, the capacity to acquire knowledge, the ability to think and reason in the abstract, and the capability of solving problems which is individuals intelligence must also be accounted for (Sternberg, 1986). The major paradigm of which is often called psychometrics, cognitive contextualize, and psychology (Sternberg, 1986).
In the interaction of the environment and processes of the mind, and biologic science, the neural bases of intelligence are considered (Sternberg, 1986).
This intelligence must do three things:
- relate intelligence to an individual’s internal world and explain what happens when a person thinks intelligently;
- accept the relation between the external world and that person’s intelligence, and explain how intelligence functions in the real world; and
- relate intelligence to the individual’s experiences (Sternberg, 1986). Robert Sternberg (1997) supposed that intellectual skills and thinking are undividable. There is more to intelligence than thinking though (Sternberg, 1986). He outlined the tri-arch theory of intelligence.
These are made up of:
- contextual (Sternberg, 1986).
In the componential division making up the initial part of intelligence is: meta-components, performance, and knowledge part (Sternberg, 1986).
The meta-components are the executive section of intelligence used to plan, monitor, and evaluate problem-solving strategies (Sternberg, 1986). While the performance factor help execute the instructions of the meta-components (Sternberg, 1986). These are the implementation pieces of intelligence (Sternberg, 1986). Knowledge acquisition on the other hand is primarily the ability to understand contextual clues in solving problems (Sternberg, 1986). The key here is to assist learners determine which facts are important (Sternberg, 1986). The second aspect specified by Sternberg is experiential.
This means the individuals’ ability to deal with new mission and to make information processing more automatic as increased by gained experiences (Sternberg, 1986). There are times when intelligence must deal with new things, new ideas (Sternberg, 1986). What is a traditional and long established style of intellectual functioning is inadequate if not outdated (Sternberg, 1986). For example, reading about military strategies on field responses doesn’t mean you can immediately make the call, dive and take immediate steps based alone on the theories learned.
There must be experience of actually taking the order. Next is diagnosing the order and putting them into an action plan of exploit before actual action will be taken. These situations require creative responses. Recognition thus of every military soldiers and civilian personnel differences, identifies individual abilities as real and inevitable. David Kolb (1984), categorized learning as a continuum. This is definitely missed by military soldiers and civilian personnel. These are:
- concrete experience;
- reflective observation;
- abstract conceptualization;
- active experimentation (Kolb, 1984). With concrete experiences learners are involved in new experiences (Kolb, 1984). In reflective observation learners watch their peers and develop their own observations about their own experiences (Kolb, 1984). In abstract conceptualization learners create theories to explain observations (Kolb, 1984). And in active experimentation learners use theories to solve problems and make decisions (Kolb, 1984).
Felder and Silverman (1988) suggested the following teaching techniques to meet the different learning styles. This can be readily applied to military soldiers and civilian personnel learning process. These are:
- Motivate learning;
- Provide balanced and concrete information;
- Balanced materials;
- Provide explicit illustrations;
- Follow the scientific method;
- Use pictures, schematics and etc. ;
- Use computer assisted instruction;
- Intervals for learners;
- Small drills’;
- Applaud and
In motivating learning, materials being presented can be related to what has come before and what is to come in the same course (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Materials can also be related to the other courses particularly the learners’ personal experiences (Felder & Silverman, 1988). In providing balance and concrete information, facts, data, real or hypothetical experiments must be included (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Their results, and abstract concepts, principles, theories and models must likewise be considered (Felder & Silverman, 1988).
In balancing the materials, practical problem solving methods must be emphasized with any material that emphasizes fundamental understanding (Felder & Silverman, 1988). In providing explicit illustrations, patterns of intuitive nature must be used (Felder & Silverman, 1988). These are: logical inferences, pattern recognition, and generalizations; and sensing patterns: observation of surroundings, and empirical experimentation paying attention to details (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Also, learners’ must be encouraged to exercise both patterns (Felder & Silverman, 1988).